By Jared Chausow
By Katie Toth
By Elizabeth Flock
By Albert Samaha
By Anna Merlan
By Jon Campbell
By Jon Campbell
By Albert Samaha
Such brutal social marginalization may be the critical factor behind one of the least-recognized religious phenomena of recent years. Paganism, from the folk appeal of the occult to the goddess-worship of Wicca, is exploding online--even trickling down to its secularized, moodier offspring, the Goths. As underground as the pagan movement is in the real world, it has found a ceremonial stomping ground on the Net: alt.pagan ranks in the top five Usenet newsgroups related to religion and spirituality; the Wiccan Circle discussion area on the 1.7 million-member Web community theglobe.com is one of the site's five most popular areas; Reclaiming.org promotes its summer Witch Camps online; and Nutmeg.net concluded its nationwide pagan gathering back in June. Even Dark Side of the Net, "bringing you into the darkness since 1994," boasts a search engine of 6200 Web sites on occult and "dark" subjects.
The Net has provided a social fabric for all sorts of fringe communities, and pagans have been arriving online in search of strength in numbers, says "Gothic pagan" Clifford Low, who runs mailing-list nexus necronomi.com and the upcoming NYCgoth.com. "Pagans are introverted, and [being online] gives them power where they feel powerless in the real world." Low maintains over 30 list-servs--like "HellSpawn-L," on parenting tips for Wiccans--which he considers the lifeblood of the movement. "One of the most important things that is being explored is the refinement of identity," he says. "Occultists, pagans, and Goths are coming together to get a clear sense of what they are."
But the unusual vibrancy of pagans online points to an underlying correspondence between technology and religious mysticism. Erik Davis, author of the forthcoming book Techgnosis: Myth, Magic, and Religion in the Information Age, believes the de-structured, "anarchic" form of paganism made it ideally suited to grow through the decentralized, anti-hierarchical Net. Modern paganists, who trace their roots back to the witchcraft covens of a British civil servant and nudist, Gerald Gardner, in the 1940s, have "self-consciously invented their religion, making up their 'ancient ways' as they go along," Davis writes.
Compensating for a lack of an established mechanism for communicating the group's lore, paper-based pagan zines proliferated in the 1970s, then were rapidly replaced by electronic bulletin board systems (BBSs) in the '80s. This "loose exchange of information between far-flung and often cantankerous groups plays a binding role" in paganism, writes Davis. Low ran his own "community-oriented" BBS from 1991 to 1993, called The Familiar Spirit. According to Low, the inventiveness and open-minded approach of pagans makes them particularly attuned to tinkering with their machines. "The occult is based on the idea of mystery and it attracts people who like to solve problems--just like programmers," he says.
While the "chaos magicians" have become more technologically savvy, the tech itself is taking on intense, mystical resonance, Davis said in an interview, and this may be the biggest change yet. "The logic of technology has become invisible--literally, occult," he writes. Pagans may be leading the way in helping to interpret our relationship to our machines. "In a formal witchcraft circle, they say, 'We are between worlds,'" Davis said. "Computer spaces [like the created worlds in MUDs and chat] lend themselves to the same feeling of being 'here' and 'not here.' "It's almost a return to the earliest iterations of religion itself, where the Word took on extraordinary power. "Language and symbol can change the reality of the place," Davis adds. "They have the ability to change the world."
I was watching television one night and I saw an ad for starving kids, and then, right after that, an ad for Kentucky Fried Chicken," says theater director Mike Taylor. "EvenSaturday Night Live wouldn't have done that." For Taylor, a member of the New York multimedia performance group 3 Legged Dog (www.artswire.org/ 3legdog), the boob tube has "replaced irony"--it's become so absurd that it's practically a genre of satire unto itself.
Or at least a character in a satire. In the group's screen-drunk farce, If I Were You (opening next Wednesday at experimental theater space The Kitchen), a cast of 12 plays off eight video monitors, a projection screen, and a portable TV starring as one of the characters. Loosely based on characters from English humorist P.G. Wodehouse's Leave It to Psmith, it mixes English farce, French melodrama, evening newscasts, and televised close-ups. To call it "theater" doesn't do justice to the format, since the drama is timed not only to the ripostes of the actors but to the cues of prerecorded video. This intimate blend of live and screen action is the signature of the four-year-old collective, whose mandate is clear: as long as monitors continue to invade the proscenium--as in the god-awful F@ust: Version 3.0 at the Lincoln Center Festival--we'd better learn to teach them to act and make them beautiful.
Dragging TVs out on stage always runs the risk of making the drama itself irrelevant. But If I Were You seems more promising than some previous forays because of 3 Legged Dog's determination to train its actors to keep from drowning in the luminescent glow. Founder and artistic director Kevin Cunningham pushed the actors to improvise around the technological gaps and delays by "feeding them video that they've never seen before . . . so that they learn to roll with the punches." The key is to relax around the TV, he says. "The timing on the video changes slightly and you don't know whether the tape stretched or not last night--that half-second delay can throw off an actor."
Technically, controlling the cues of screen footage is its own minefield, says Cunningham. Major Broadway productions now use massive networks of control boards. "If you look below the stage at Beauty and the Beast, you'll see a mainframe," Cunningham says. "But we're not Broadway producers--we can't come up with $250,000." So the company is designing a more affordable system of its own. (Cunningham and Taylor have worked on the tech side with Richard Foreman, Meredith Monk, and Blue Man Group.) In fact, 3 Legged Dog is so well known for "working with technology and bodies at the same time" that it occasionally gets gigs doing tech support, including running ("line producing") last spring's Governor's Conference on Art and Technology.
Next February at the Tribeca Performing Arts Center, Cunningham will produce a stage play accompanied by a counter-narrative told through an hour-and-30-minute video running simultaneously. "[The TV] allows us to play with scale," he says. And schizophrenia.
Signal and Noise
Dr. Martens, I Presume? Consolidation continued in the interactive design industry, as hometeam Razorfish--now a "digital change management" company--merged last week with the Swedish Spray Network, in what could be an attempt to lock down the markets in Helsingfors and Hamburg. Meanwhile, Agency.com, now with offices in London and Paris, hints that it may be moving East, into Asia. Gangbuster growth or digital colonialism? You decide...