By Alex Distefano
By Scott Snowden
By Anna Merlan
By Steve Almond
By Jena Ardell
By Jon Campbell
By Alan Scherstuhl
By Tessa Stuart
In the days after the Littleton shooting, Robert Giles, director of the Freedom Forum's Media Studies Center, issued a press release decreeing that a year after the utterly excessive and inane coverage of the school yard massacre in Jonesboro, Arkansas news organizations were being "more fair" than the previous year. They had taken a "more sensitive approach to interviewing students," he said, and had "avoided jumping to conclusions" about the causes of the tragedy. Only one real failing, the release noted: "news outlets still seem overeager in reporting the number of casualties." Otherwise, all was well. "These observations reflect a recognition that the public increasingly holds the press accountable for its performance and at least in early reporting, the press appears to be responding by being more responsible."
Press Clips wonders if Giles is, as one of our colleagues suggested, "on the pipe."
It's a bit much to consider it "fair and sensitive" of MSNBC to cut from an interview with a surviving student who described tending to a mortally wounded teacher, to commentator-cum-opportunist Pat Buchanan, who blasted American youth culture as debased. It seems at least in bad taste, if not offensive, for networks to crow over ratings spikes for such a tragedy. And when The Washington Post reports that "in political tracts and other elements of the conspiratorial imagination, trench coats serve as a symbol for things from Hitler and the Nazis to mass murder to suicidal fantasies," one really has to wonder whether it could lead to errant conclusions about youth who hide nothing more malignant than quiet affinities for thrift stores or a John Wooinspired milieu.
But what astounds most about Giles's assessment is his failure to mention that for the most part, news organizations haven't bothered to talk to any of the nation's actual expert researchers on the subject of mass murder, nor have they done the responsible thing based on a finding on which those researchers agree that when it comes to the causes of mass murder, while culture is undeniably a factor, the most salient media isn't entertainment, but news.
When workplace mass murders began to rise about 10 years ago, reporters like The Washington Post's Curt Suplee and The New York Times's Fox Butterfield sought out the handful of people who have devoted their professional lives to studying these morbid occurrences. As journalists discovered, researchers had found that mass murderers could be categorized: those who killed their families, those who turned on their workplaces, and paramilitary enthusiasts who took out random citizens in public places. Despite the categorical differences, the investigators found the offenders were essentially the same socially isolated men whose myriad frustrating experiences were complemented by mental disorders. Legitimate feelings of marginalization and being pushed around were exacerbated by an externalizing of responsibility. Almost all manifested outward signs of deterioration and even openly planned their crime but weren't taken seriously; almost all either turned their guns on themselves or opted for "suicide by cop."
In this case, however, the likes of Suplee and Butterfield weren't anywhere near Littleton, and Post and Times editors apparently didn't bother to do a quick Nexis search. If they had, according to Northeastern University professor and mass murder researcher Jack Levin, they would have grasped that in the context of what's known about mass murder, the Klebold-Harris rampage was par for the course. "They were just like their older counterparts this was the teenage equivalent of a workplace massacre," says Levin, who's concerned that the coverage of the Littleton shootings is lending itself to scapegoating youth and perpetuating false notions about the causes of this and similar shootings. "I'm getting tired of people blaming popular culture, and by spending so much time interviewing psychiatrists who work with kids, we emphasize an individual-level explanation for something that's more complex."
Indeed, it's not as if mass murder adolescent or otherwise is a uniquely American phenomenon; according to journalist Antonio Mendoza, reporters have missed the opportunity for perspective thanks to international myopia. "Not only are all these killers similar, despite their ages, but they're all over the world. I haven't seen anyone reference a number of recent young mass murderers in Russia," says Mendoza, who relentlessly tracks and reports on global mass murders and serial killings for his Internet Crime Archives (www.mayhem.net). "And guess what the deal is with those kids? Russian army conscripts who crack after being jazzed and humiliated by their peers. I've noted in a lot of cases Hitler-Nazi obsessions not really out of political neo-Nazi beliefs," he says, but based on the twisted mix of outcast-turned-übermensch that Hitler embodies.
Mendoza adds that press examination of mass murders in Australia and New Zealand might have been useful as well. "But instead of focusing on what matters, the press focuses on stuff that's of no consequence. There's more talk about how this is all movies' and Marilyn Manson's fault instead of pointing out that, to kids who have no German background, speaking German to one another and going 'heil Hitler' is a pretty recognizable sign of a human time bomb."
But as a wave of copycat incidents and threats spread across the nation's schools, accusations against Marilyn Manson and Hollywood thrived, along with the standard culture-war carping from the Amen Corner. (In one particularly bizarre moment on CNN's Larry King Live, actor Yaphet Kotto whose sole qualification to sound off on Littleton appears to be his role as a police lieutenant on Homicide blamed the whole thing on the fact that "God is not in the classroom anymore," and repeated the misinformation, sans reality check from King, that students aren't allowed to pray.) While coverage of copycat attempts relied on quotes from educators, psychologists, social workers, politicians, and law enforcement officials, virtually unheard from were people like Park Dietz and David Phillips, whose studies have found that news reports not movies or video games are the prime media mover in begetting copycats.