By Jena Ardell
By Jon Campbell
By Alan Scherstuhl
By Tessa Stuart
By Roy Edroso
By Jon Campbell
By Albert Samaha
By Zachary D. Roberts
"Is she a fat, cheesy slut?" That's the question audiences ask whenever a woman gets onstage, argued playwright and performance artist Deb Margolin, at a roundtable on women and theater organized by the New York State Council on the Arts last fall. "You have to answer that question with your performance," Margolin added. "Unless you steal the space of the stage."
Even in 1999, it's not hard to agree with Margolin's analysis. This was the season, after all, when the biggest excitement on Broadway was that guys were packing binoculars and paying Knicks prices to catch a glimpse of Nicole Kidman's flesh in the New Times Square. (In the old Times Square, of course, such thrills used to come a lot cheaper.) Indeed, for all the gains women have made in the theater and in general over the last couple of decades, there's a sense of crisis today.
The Women's Project and Productions, the 21-year-old company, recently opened its own 199-seat theater in order to assure the presentation of plays by women. The Guerrilla Girls, whose satirical antics skewer the sexism of the art world, have started to train their sights on the stage; a sticker they've been slapping up in theater bathrooms declares: "In this theater the taking of photographs, the use of recording devices, and the production of plays by women are strictly prohibited." In September, American Theater magazine published a special issue on women, prompting some critics to ask why such ghettoization is still needed, or even allowed. (When no women are featured in a magazine, after all, it's not identified as the special men's issue.) And in October and November, NYSCA hosted six roundtable discussions among dozens of directors, playwrights, performers, critics, producers, academics, and other theater folks, all focusing on an increasingly vexing question: Why, a generation after an explosive feminist movement, are women still getting such a paltry deal in American theaters?
To be sure, no one was overlooking the substantial achievements of hundreds of artists, from Zelda Fichandler to Suzan-Lori Parks. Nonetheless, a "Report on the Status of Women Directors and Playwrights in the New York City Theater," commissioned by NYSCA and conducted by Suzanne Bennett and Celia Braxton, paints a bleak, even shocking, picture. It notes, for example, that "women make up 62 percent of the Broadway audience, occupy 48 percent of all managerial and professional positions in the U.S.," yet "their participation in paid professional theater is approximately 22 percent." More specifically, while women make up as much as 40 percent of students in M.F.A. playwriting programs and playwright service organizations, they account for less than 20 percent of the plays produced in New York.
Directors don't fare any better. The stats from their union, the Society of Stage Directors and Choreographers, tells the dismal tale best: Women account for 44 percent of the associate members, those in the early stages of their careers. But they compose only 23 percent of the full members, those who have worked on a major Broadway, Off-Broadway, or regional theater production. In other words, women who start out directing in small venues and in graduate programs don't get the same breaks as their male cohorts. And that, in turn, continues the cycle of male-dominated repertoires: It's hot directors who often have the power to bring new plays into major production.
Déjà vu all over again? Such numbers have been tracked for years. Indeed, women have tried to do something about them since even before there were statistical analyses to back up what they knew from experience. It was 31 yes, 31 years ago that Maria Irene Fornes, along with Roslyn Drexler, Rochelle Owens, Megan Terry, and others, established the New York Theater Strategy to provide what Fornes called "a theater without compromise and sexism." If our theaters have not lived up to that eminently reasonable demand, could it be because we've become ever more drenched in compromise, and the sexism that attends it, in the general wave of acquiescence that has been sweeping over the culture since the Reagan years? Have we lost our utopian verve, our vision of a way to make things better while we battle the seemingly certain prospect that things can only get worse? Have we given up on collective action and absorbed the movement-destroying '90s rhetoric of "individual responsibility"? Have we succumbed to the national/corporate definition of culture as mass entertainment?
There's no need to rehearse the details of the dominion of Disney or the endless attacks on noncorporate arts in general, from the "obscenity" trials of the NEA to the real estate crunches that have squeezed the life out of countless theaters, but one can't talk about the challenges women in theater face without recognizing this larger context. Suffice it to say that Giuliani's budget for fiscal 2000 proposes cutting the Department of Cultural Affairs by a whopping 20 percent and completely eliminating ongoing support for nearly 500 cultural organizations in the city. All such factors, obviously, make most theater institutions and, eventually, audiences more conservative, and thus more likely to seek the sure hit, or at least the known quantity. So perhaps it's not so surprising after all that, according to Bennett and Braxton's study, since 1975 the percentage of plays by women has stayed virtually the same on Broadway (16 percent) and increased only marginally Off-Broadway (from 13 to 21 percent). Never mind that the study found that nearly two-thirds of ticket buyers are women. Often they're trying to drag their reluctant husbands or boyfriends along to the theater, and winning them over means insisting that the play in question will appeal to their male sensibility. (No wonder the misogynist Oleanna was one of the most-produced plays in the history of regional theaters.)