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Construction on the $500 million Penn Station Redevelopment Project is expected to begin in early 2000 and be completed by the end of 2003. It is designed, like its predecessor, as a shrine to technological enlightenment giving shape to the ideals of progress, amplitude, and motion. "[The space will convey] an aspiration for the future: clarity, lightness, a sense of clearheadedness, a sense of visibility," says Washburn. "That's very much a knowledge-based aspiration that ties in to what we now do with our tools and information, with the Web. That knowledge becomes like water and air. It's open to all." The plan is to re-create the feel of the original design: vast in every direction and flooded with natural light so that the boundaries of space fade away.
In response to the PSRC proposal, politicians and journalists have been launching into one evangelistic convulsion after another. Even Mayor Giuliani, who has recently made himself the project's only conspicuous opponent (calling it extravagant) announced publicly that the station would prove "the city is back as the capital of the world." Senator Moynihan sees a movement: "It is up to a new generation to renew our cities. Penn Station is the start, and we will find when we complete this project that suddenly all will seem possible. We are at the hinge of history, and you must push." The New York Times architecture critic Herbert Muschamp called the design "proof that New York can still undertake major public works."
The acclaim may ring with bridge-to-the-21st-century hyperbole, but the new Penn Station is in fact unprecedented in this country in its application of technology to city infrastructure. Half a century ago the city fell into a kind of planning entropy, and this project is the appropriate harbinger of a new era of high-concept building. But what's even more fascinating than the project's symbolic importance is how it employs the most sophisticated architectural, engineering, and information technology available using design and rendering software, engineering analysis programs, a flexible fiber-optic backbone, and massive new media displays.
The plans call for a vast sculpted ceiling made entirely of glass and steel stretching up and out like a gusty sail, tilting over the 1.4 million-square-foot Farley Post Office complex, located directly across from the existing Penn Station platforms. The Landmarks Commission was concerned about the shell's space-age shape, but architect David Childs, of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, explained that its structure borrows as much from ancient geometry as from sci-fi drama it mathematically alludes to and revises the great domes of classical architecture.
What makes the shell even more compelling is that it couldn't have been built before now. Its computerized design and engineering have only recently become affordable enough for corporate rather than military use. For a decade, Skidmore (which is also contracted to overhaul the New York Stock Exchange, Columbus Circle, and parts of Times Square) has been using AutoCad modeling software a system the company developed with IBM and the Department of Defense to translate its sketches into digital 3-D wire-frame models. Only recently, however, have architects been able to render their concepts in cosmetic detail, using special-effects applications inspired by the video game industry. Programs like 3D Studio and 3D Max have become crucial to the design process, since they can demonstrate how light, texture, and finish will affect space how it feels to be within the structure and navigating it.
As for physical models, the cutting and gluing process that used to take architects months of agony can now be completed in a matter of days. Industrial laser machines can interpret an AutoCad file and burn, onto a sheet of plastic, shapes that will form a structurally accurate model when all the seams are fused. Photo- etching technology uses a chemical etching process to similarly transfer designs onto sheet metal. The future of architectural modeling is rapid-prototype (or stereo-lithography) technology, which translates directly from a graphic to a perfect sculpture the computer "energizes" a vat of resin and builds the material up in concentric layers. These processes make it easier for high-concept architects to translate even their most visionary designs into 3-D prototypes.
The designers and engineers of Penn Station have an architectural interpretation of the old McLuhan adage: the kind of technology that you use to study the design also influences the form. "If you are cutting something out of paper, you'll tend to make things that use planes," says Ross Wimer, the project's senior designer. Computerized design tools liberate architects from a particular material or dimensional orientation, but they do encourage geometric repetition structures with replicated shapes and segments.