By Alex Distefano
By Scott Snowden
By Anna Merlan
By Steve Almond
By Jena Ardell
By Jon Campbell
By Alan Scherstuhl
By Tessa Stuart
Blacks lucky enough to land a job in a city lived in outlying townshipsoften, in the early days, with their families. But that changed with the infamous 1964 Bantu Laws Amendments Act, which mandated that new workers live in all-male hostels in the townships. The mining model had become national policy, and the results were disastrous.
"I lived next to a hostel in Soweto, and I would get called to treat someone stabbed or shot." Motlana recalls. "The stench in those places! They were filthy. The hostels bred crime, but it goes beyond that. Children were ill-disciplined because they didn't have fathers. It led to so much human abuse."
It also led to an explosion of AIDS. South Africa has one of the world's fastest-growing HIV epidemics, and many researchers believe that the country's system of migrant labor is one of the driving forces. "If you wanted to spread a sexually transmitted disease, you would take thousands of young men away from their families, isolate them in single-sex hostels, and give them easy access to alcohol and commercial sex," says Mark Lurie, a South African researcher who has studied the effect of migrant labor on HIV. "Then, to spread the disease around the country, you'd send them home every once in a while to their wives and girlfriends. And that's basically the system of migrant labor we have."
In Carletonville, Yodwa Mzaidume works with the hundreds of prostitutes that live in squatter camps by the mining hostels. She trains them to educate each other to use condoms, but it's hard to involve them in anything beyond that. "Take Leeupoort," she says, referring to one of the squatter camps. "People there don't have toilets or running water. If you come to them talking about political activism, they ask, 'What's in it for me?' "
In America, the cry of AIDS activists was simple: "Drugs into bodies!" But in South Africa, the needs are so much more complex. Mzaidume ticks off some of them: "Migrant labor, overcrowding, unemployment, the crime rate. But what are we doing about them? What can we do?" Migrant labor, she notes, has become so ingrained into South African life that "mineworkers don't want their families to stay here. They say, 'Who would take care of my cows back home?' "
Mzaidume doesn't dwell on South Africa's past because what's spreading HIV, she quips, "is sex with other people, not sex with apartheid." But with unemployment officially above 30 percent and probably much higher, she says, "There's a lot of anger among the youth. They say, 'Yes, we are in a democratic South Africa, but we still live in apartheid.' "
The result is rage. Njoko, the activist who grew up in KwaMashu, explains: "They'll see me and think, 'She is an HIV-positive woman, how is she doing so well?' And then maybe they'll hurt me or kill me. But when you look deeper you find out the guy has been unemployed for 10 years." Some men even take out their anger by infecting other people, she says, echoing a common conviction. "They say they don't want to die alone, they're going to take people with them. I don't support them, but there's absolutely nothing there for the person who is HIV-positive. The message is they're going to die."
Zackie Achmat is one of the architects of the Treatment Action Campaign. He also fought apartheid, organizing student demonstrations and going to jail for it. Although his ancestry is mixed-race, he called himself black, a tactic of solidarity. He is also a leader of South Africa's flourishing lesbian and gay movement, and with his international connections he could get the very latest medication to treat his HIV. But he has publicly declared that he will not take any drug that is not available to all South Africans.
So when he stood up at a meeting this spring, attended by Zuma, then the minister of health, Achmat had credibility. He told her of his longstanding membership in the ANC, pointed out that the AIDS movement supported her opposition to high pharmaceutical prices, and requested a meeting. To the astonishment of most activists, she agreed. And after the meeting, she reversed her policy on AZT for pregnant women.
It was a stunning victoryand it opened the way for much larger advances, especially on drug prices. It was Zuma who pushed through a law that could allow the South African government to bypass pharmaceutical patents and obtain essential medicines at much lower pricesfor example, from companies that make generic versions of the drugs. That made South Africa ground zero in a high-profile battle joined by Western AIDS activists and organizations, such as the Nobel-winning Médecins Sans Frontières, to relax patent and trade restrictions that help keep essential drugs unaffordable. Here was a fight AIDS activists and the South African government shared.
But this fall, President Mbeki shocked activists by saying, "There exists a large volume of scientific literature alleging that, among other things, the toxicity of this drug is such that it is, in fact, a danger to health." Never mind that AZT has been evaluated in dozens of trials around the world, that its benefits usually outweigh its side effects, and that countries as strict as Germany and the United States have approved the drug for use against HIV. Indeed, in a study carried out among pregnant women in South Africa, AZT together with another drug showed no more side effects than a placebo. So where did the most powerful person in Africa get the notion that AZT is dangerous?