By Alex Distefano
By Scott Snowden
By Anna Merlan
By Steve Almond
By Jena Ardell
By Jon Campbell
By Alan Scherstuhl
By Tessa Stuart
Does the NBA practice affirmative actionfor white players? Well, sports fans, even as quotas and preferential treatment come under increasing fire throughout American society, a close look at NBA rosters suggests that the league is one realm where racial tokenism may live on. Sure, the claim seems ludicrous for the overwhelmingly black NBAuntil you consider the disproportionate number of mediocre white players in the league. Indeed, the surfeit of white benchwarmers suggests that pro basketball teams may practice a fainter version of the quota system Bill Russell accused the league of maintaining back in the 1960s: a form of racial gerrymandering that carves out a piece of pine for whites, pushing black players off the bench.
Consider these numbers: Of the 405 players on current NBA rosters (a total that includes players on injured reserve), 84 are white, or 21 percent. But whites make up only 14 percent of NBA starting lineups, while composing 17 percent of nonstarting regular-rotation players (on the Knicks, think Marcus Camby; on the Nets, Johnny Newman), 27 percent of occasional subs (like Knick Chris Dudley and Net Elliot Perry), and 36 percent of deep-bench denizens (Knicks Andrew Lang and Rick Brunson, or Net Evan Eschmeyer, for example). In effect, the farther down the bench you go, the paler it gets.
Crunch the numbers a different way, and you reveal another side of the coin: 13 of the 29 NBA teams have all-black and Latino starting fives, 11 start four blacks, and just five have three black starters (no team's top squad is mostly white). But only seven teams have all-black subs and scrubs. And only one teamthe Washington Wizardsis all-black, from starters to benchwarmers.
Why do white hoopsters have such a relatively, er, easier time being 12th men? "You have some spectacular white athletes who play in the NBA," says Charles Farrell, director of Rainbow Sports, a division of Jesse Jackson's Wall Street Project, "but when you look at the end of the bench, you see the result of an effort to keep at least one or two whites on every team. And blacks in the CBA and elsewhere suffer." Adds Farrell, "I don't know that anyone has sent a directive to anyone else that you must have white players, but the numbers speak for themselves."
Numbers, however, can lie, says Geoff Petrie, the GM of the runnin', gunnin' Sacramento Kings, who areat least demographicallythe whitest team in the league, with seven whites and seven blacks on their roster. "I can honestly say that I've never been involved in a personnel decision that's been based on race," says Petrie, who presided over all-black squads as Portland GM in the early '90s. "Nobody I've ever worked for, or a coach I've worked with, has ever brought it up. In fact, it's hard for me to even talk in those terms."
Petrie isn't the only league official who finds the issue difficult to discuss. Voicecalls to more than a dozen league honchos went unanswered, while others would only talk off the record. As one league insider put it, "This is a real sore spot for the NBA, because the league prides itself on being color-blind. After all, the game would just not be 80 percent black if the old barriers still existed. But, c'mon, every team wants some balance."
Indeed, racial imbalance has long been an NBA concern. The league was integrated the season after its 1949 founding, and 20 years later featured a more or less even mix of black and white players. But by the mid '70s blacks had become a growing majority in pro basketball, "causing serious concern among the owners and league officials," wrote Arthur Ashe in his history of African Americans in sports, A Hard Road to Glory. "In spite of the natural talent displayed by black players, many continued to feel black player presence and dominance of the sport was the root cause of declining attendance."
In 1980, Cleveland's new owner, Ted Stepien, sent black star Campy Russell to the Knicks, dumped black guard Foots Walker (then third in the league in assists), and traded for two white journeymen. "I think the Cavs have too many blacks," he proclaimed. "You need a blend of white and black. I think that draws and I think that's a better team." The league sanctioned him.
Still, Lenny Wilkens, then coaching Seattle, said, "The unwritten rule is that there should be a minimum of three white players on each team." When the Knicks fielded the first all-black squad that same year, recalls Micheal Ray Richardson, star of that team, they heard the sobriquet Niggerbockers from some disgruntled fansboth on the road and at home. Says Richardson, "That's just the way it was at the time. We was an all-black team in New York. I mean, it was reality."
The realistic view held that white fans wanted white heroes. When, soon after, the Philadelphia Daily Newstook a survey of fans (the 76ers then featured Julius Erving), 57 percent agreed that "a white audience won't pay to watch black athletes." Lamenting the Sixers' anemic attendance despite its league-leading record, Dr. J conceded, "I would like to say that race is not involved, but that would be naive."