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This past month has also seen actions in Nigeria, where an IMF-induced fuel price hike of 50 percent triggered mass political dissent, and in France, where sheep farmer-cum-populist anti-globalization hero Jose Bové orchestrated a 'wrecking party' of a half-built McDonald's. His trial drew tens of thousands of protesters, who dubbed the event 'Seattle-on-the-tarn.'
Activists everywhere have been fighting global financial institutions and multinational corporations for decades. But the recent battles in Seattle and D.C. Represent a kind of tipping point: the moment when years of coalition building, grassroots education, and rage at corporate greed spill into mainstream consciousness, snaring the media spotlight and throwing it on complex, eye-glazing economic issues that affect everything from the food we eat to the air we breathe. These are the moments when mall-bloated americans note, if only for an instant, that much of the worldand many Americansare desperately poor. And it's not just because of corruption, ignorance, or lack of resources; it's because big corporations and the institutions that do their bidding control wealth, resources, and political power.
The World Bank and the IMF say they aim to alleviate poverty through their loan, aid, and building projects in the third world, or, as activists call it, "the Global South." Despite being stunned by the spotlight of scrutiny, these institutions, activists charge, persist in following their one-size-fits-all economic growth formula irrespective of local communities' concerns or cross-border cultural differences. Senegalese activist Seydina Senghor, cofounder of Jubilee 2000 (a coalition urging wealthy nations to cancel the debts owed them by impoverished countries), says these two institutions "have paved the way for foreign companies to eliminate nation states and reduce African people to another form of slavery and colonization."
So what does it matter to nations where most people live on less than a dollar a day that Americans, traditionally mocked for their me-first mentality, are shaking the dust from their imperial slumber and confronting these harsh realities? The problem, of course, is that most Americans are not. But the activists who made headlines in Seattle and D.C. and those who are recruiting and fundraising to support protests in Mexico, Ecuador, Thailand, and elsewhere have helped reignite grassroots movements worldwide. "What was incredible was to see this movement replicated in the U.S.," says Anuradha Mittal, Indian activist and codirector of the U.S.-based Institute for Food and Development Policy. "It's no longer the white man's burden to help the world. It's in our own backyard."
One concrete effect of the protest in Seattle, Senghor believes, was that when African delegates to the WTO trade meeting heard protesters outside chanting "Africa don't sign," they felt encouraged to "rebel against the global north and say, We are not signing."
The protests have also raised doubts about the WTO among policy elites. "The WTO secretariat is having an enormously difficult time lobbying developing nations to agree to a new trade round," says Filipino activist Walden Bello, executive director of Focus on the Global South. Many Filipino senators, he explains, regret having ratified the WTO charter in 1994 and are now taking a "hard line in negotiations for a modified Agreement on Agriculture" that would protect Filipinos against U.S. and European "dumping" of goods, which WTO trade agreements make possible.
This past June, Indian economist Ravi Kanbur, a principal author of the World Bank's influential World Development Report, resigned after being asked to rework the "tone" of the annual document. According to Bangkok Nation, the report questioned the exportability of Western-style capitalism and referred to the "empowerment" of the poor, laying blame not just on corruption or ineffective fiscal policies, but on the absence of input from the ordinary citizen. The report seems to suggest that poverty is political. Which is what activists worldwide have been saying all along.
Networking is the heart and soul of recent global protests. It's behind everything from the mass mobilizations of people in Melbourne and Prague to the International Forum on Globalization's preparations for a small gathering of Mexican activists, farmers, and officials to discuss Boise Cascade's logging excesses in Mexico.
The Web, of course, helps much of this organizing happen on the cheap (for those who have access to computers), but airfare and room and board are necessary for warm bodies to link arms. Road showsessentially traveling teach-insare one way activists raise funds. Grant proposals are written, philanthropy sought. Educating the public means everything from organizing a "reality tour" (the antidote to Club Med, offered by Global Exchange, in which travelers get to work with activists in other countries) to talking to high school classes about how WTO strips away legislation designed to maintain clean air.