By Lindsey Rhoades
By Chaz Kangas
By Ben Westhoff and Sarah Purkrabek
By Jena Ardell
By Jesse Sendejas Jr.
By Katherine Turman
By Steve Weinstein
By Araceli Cruz
Schoenberg warned a century ago, during that twilight zone between Wagner and Stravinsky, that the tempered scale was used upits melodies worn out, its thematic variations a close-order drill going nowhere. Of course, jazz proved him dead wrong by revitalizing all the verities with blue harmonies, rhythmic force, and melodies of expressive and exuberant originality. Still, he was right about European classicism, a not insignificant field at the time, and his solution, serialism, forced his adherents to disavow habits and conventions. This produced a whole new musical world, though not many hits. Meanwhile, jazz thumbed its nose at the worrywarts and had a high old time for 50-plus years, until it, too, began to ruminate about habit and convention, opening the gates to rock 'n' roll, which filled the hit-making gap. Now, at the dawn of a hip-hopping new century, one can't help but notice that the tempered scale once again seems used upits melodies worn out, its thematic variations a close-order drill going nowhere.
Jazz's Schoenberg, Ornette Coleman, devised three solutions. The first was the chimera of free jazz, which offered spontaneity on a blank grid, producing a montage of ebullient melodies, one-one rhythms, and providential harmoniesthough Freddie Hubbard's bebop habits revealed that freedom was a matter of, as Lester Bowie would later observe, "what you know." Wary of spontaneity's limitations, Coleman issued solutions two and three in 1976, on Dancing in Your Head. At the time it was released, in that twilight zone between fusion and neoclassicism, many thought the story was Coleman's use of electric instruments and backbeats, but it became increasingly clear that the key innovation was scrupulous notation that forced the rhythm section to abandon conventional patterns. By including a brief collaboration with the Master Musicians of Joujouka, he cracked the door open to a third source of rejuvenation, patronizingly known as world music.
Coleman wasn't out there aloneothers were working along the same lines before and during. But where other innovators release albums, Coleman has a penchant for producing manifestos. The fact remains that most modern jazz that isn't mainstream-conservative combines free improvisation, heady notation, and, not to put too fine a point on it, exotica. You could not ask for a better example than the new band Henry Threadgill debuted at the Knitting Factory on September 15, a sextet called Zooid ("1. Biology. An organic cell or organized body that has independent movement within a living organism, especially a motile gamete such as a spermatozoon. 2. Zoology. One of the usually microscopic animals forming an aggregate or colony, as of bryozoans or hydrozoans." American Heritage Dictionary).
Threadgill has been collating the free, written, and world options since the mid '70s, starting at least as far back as Air and pieces like "Untitled Tango." But Zooid, even in a sometimes tentative premiere, took a bold step beyond Air and such later bands as Very Very Circus and the ongoing Make a Move in combining the raucous exuberance of familiarity with fastidious notation that forces both the chamber unit and its members to think fast and fresh. The group's internationalism is literal. Only Threadgill and acoustic guitarist Liberty Ellman are American-born; Tarik Benbrahim, who plays oud, is Moroccan; Jose Davila, who plays tuba, is Puerto Rican; drummer Dafnis Prieto is Cuban; and accordionist Tony Cedras, the only holdover from Make a Move, is South African. Much emphasis is placed on the strings, but the band's peculiarly jerky heartbeat is in the rhythms. The meter changes, at times, from measure to measure, keeping the musicians' eyes on the lead sheets and their minds on the moment.
Zooid was conceived as a stopgap for a gig that was booked before Threadgill discovered that not all the Make a Move musicians would be available. He might have taken it easy, jamming with friends for a few nights, but instead configured an ensemble that required new music and much rehearsal. He composed eight new pieces, four for flute and four for alto saxophone, and readapted Very Very Circus's "Hope A Hope A," a perfect, dessertlike set-closer. The evening opened with two flute pieces. "Tickle Pink," an undulating six-note riff and tremolo, emerged cautiouslythe players hewed to written harmonies and meters as Threadgill navigated a solo. The piece cohered best, however, when Liberty Ellman eased his way into an invention with knifelike articulation (he plucked at or near the bridge), sustaining lines long enough to crest the changing rhythm. The arranged time and harmonies proscribed relaxed swing, but inspired novel improvisational figures. Threadgill had stacked the deck against habit and convention. Even Cedras, who plays so expansively on Where's Your Cup? (the Columbia CD quietly released a year after the label bumped Threadgill), sounded hesitant.
But as the set continued, a mutual authority kicked in, and what started as a negative print developed into a vivid picture. Threadgill's alto helped. His sound is always a tonic, combining two standard fruit metaphorspear-shaped pitch and peach-fuzz timbre. Parts of "Do the Needful" suggested a clattering mechanical toy slowly winding down, only to get a sudden burst of life. The leader's gritty solo, with its ferocious, arpeggiated dives and swoops, stayed the center, even when simultaneous meters vied for attention; where do you look?the drummer says one thing, the tuba another. Then, with a stunner called "Around My Goose," the issue of Schoenbergian mazes and forced originality disappeared, as the ensemble cohered into a practiced chamber sextet, capering through the soft melody with the push-me-pull-you suppleness of an accordion, providing a pneumatic cushion to float the solos. The meter, too, was compellingyou couldn't tap four, but you wanted to tap something.