By Jared Chausow
By Katie Toth
By Elizabeth Flock
By Albert Samaha
By Anna Merlan
By Jon Campbell
By Jon Campbell
By Albert Samaha
The question today isn't whether law enforcement is engaging in racial profiling, it's how much. By all indications, a lot. The FBI and INS have targeted over a thousand people based on their national origin and locked them up for immigration technicalities or sometimes for nothing at all. The Justice Department has tagged 5000 young men, also based on nationality, for voluntary interviews that are not entirely free of coercion or consequences and therefore not entirely voluntary. Muslim names prompt airport security checksgetting "wanded" is a part of the customer service experience for certain travelers. No space where police or federal agents patrol is free for those who appear Middle Eastern.
As for the rhetoric of righteousness dispensed from on high, a December 17 San Jose Mercury News editorial had this observation: "Americans want a thorough, professional and intelligent investigation. . . . Instead, the Justice Department has substituted breadth for depth. . . . President Bush . . . encourages Americans not to vilify people by race or religion. Yet his administration's deeds speak differently."
What is officially sanctioned becomes the broader norm. Government-sponsored racial profiling has coincided with unprecedented levels of popular violence toward and harassment of those who appear Muslim or Middle Eastern. Between early September and late November, the Council on American-Islamic Relations recorded 1452 hate incidentscompared to 630 in all of 2000. That's not counting incidents reported to other organizations and those not reported to anyone. Emira Habiby Browne, executive director of Brooklyn's Arab-American Family Support Center, says slurs on the street, workplace discrimination, and harassment of schoolchildren are commonplace but rarely reported, since victims have little reason to expect support from the authorities.
The post-September 11 anti-immigrant trend in law enforcement has meant those who have the least recourse are the most profiled. Noncitizens are easier to lock up and have a tougher time defending themselves, because the nation's laws grant them lesser rights. Xenophobia, a phenomenon as American as apple pie, makes official persecution easy. Civil liberties lawyer Norman Siegel has noticed a remarkable surge in anti-immigrant attitudes in his chats with community groups across the city. "It's telling when people use the word 'alien' to describe undocumented immigrants, people who live in their neighborhoods," he says. What it tells is that some people are considered human, and some might as well be from Mars.
The justification for all of this is, of course, terrorismextraordinary times. "If I tried to come up with the strongest hypothetical in favor of racial profiling, what better incident could I have come up with," says David Harris, professor of law and values at the University of Toledo College of Law. But, he and other profiling opponents warn, there is always a "good" reason.
"Once the majority of people sign off on racial profiling of people of Middle Eastern descent, all arguments against the racial profiling of blacks and Latinos will be bowled over," says Van Jones, a longtime anti-police-brutality activist and director of the Ella Baker Center for Human Rights in San Francisco. "Just like with Middle Easterners," he says, law enforcement could make the argument that "we have to profile these angry, inner-city black folks" because they are a danger to society.
Issuing the most basic appeal to communities of color, Jones says, "Every African American and Latino either does look like somebody from the Middle East or has a cousin that does. So on the level of self-interest, you don't want to be signing off on these tactics. You're signing off on your own family being profiled. Let us not be suckers for anybody."
!= The sucker part goes for everyone. For those who couldn't care less about racial justice, profiling's opponents have another, more objective, point: Policing based on race or national origin is not just wrong, it's unsafe.
"This isn't just a matter of political correctness or hurt feelings," says law professor Harris, who has written a book about the inefficacy of racial profiling. Law enforcement initiatives like the Justice Department's effort to interview 5000 Middle Eastern men work against the goal of increased public safety, he says, because "at the same time as it gets no results, you alienate everyone in the community." By burning bridges, investigators hamper "good intelligence and information," says Harris, which are one of the "pillars" of good police work.
Indeed, says Arab American advocate Habiby Browne, "Some are reacting [to law enforcement's focus] with fear, some are totally withdrawing, and certainly some are very angry. Even for a traffic ticket, something benign, people don't want to deal with the authorities in any way."