By Christian Viveros-Fauné
By Miriam Felton-Dansky
By Tom Sellar
By Tom Sellar
By Jessica Dawson
By Tom Sellar
By R. C. Baker
By Tom Sellar
At first, they tagged. Simple, direct, and often ungraceful, the earliest graffiti were a cry for acknowledgement, cultural politics wrapped in a shroud of anti-capitalist artistic freedom. Soon, though, the identity cards went hyperstylized. Writers got their arton, before anyone came up from downtown to tell them that's what they were doing.
Graffiti's gallery legitimization happened so quickly there was hardly time to wonder what that meant both for graf itself and for the art world. Almost three decades later, "One Planet Under a Groove" aims to answer at least the latter question. No longer are the street-level artists cherished by the establishment; those who risked life and limb in the '70s just to have the opportunityand assert their rightto tag, seem like anachronisms. But while urban graf struggles, its children, armed with M.F.A.'s and grant money, are finding the path to acceptance well-paved and legal.
Yet with so many entrants in the arena, from so many different places and with so many different approaches, to search for a unified hip-hop aesthetic in visual art is as futile as to do so within the music itself. Some artists give racial politics primacy, others are obsessed with particular members of the hip-hop community, and still others have taken their processes right from the hip-hop playbook. Remixed media, you could say.
"One Planet" 's task is therefore daunting, so curators Lydia Yee and Franklin Sirmans laid out a handful of rules, namely the avoidance of graffiti art, though inevitably it does sneak into the show. Douglas Ross literally rips someone's tag off a brick wall and reinstalls the fiberglass "copy" in his own Graft. Perhaps if graffiti and post-graf weren't such visual-art staples, something Ross seeks to comment on, his piece would feel less like just plain, unideologically motivated theft. Martin Wong painted his tagger friend Sharp beside a blank canvas, upon which Sharp made his mark. Again, the person on the nameplate has his hip-hop cred on loan, made especially clear when juxtaposed against the Keith Haring subway graffito on the other side of the room.
Haring also taps into another recurring theme of the exhibition, though: interactivity. The question of where art stops and viewing begins may not have a hip-hop-specific answer, but the culture's insurrectionary goals do offer inspiration for some of the artists here. Sanford Biggers and David Ellis contribute a rubberized break-dancing floor"scuff marks" are listed as a mediumand an accompanying video of a breaking competition, echoing Juan Capistran's The Breaks, a photo series of the artist break dancing on a Carl Andre floor sculpture (covertly, we're told in the catalog). At this exhibition's opening, people took to the floor for a breaking battle, and the turntables in Nadine Robinson's oversized Big Baby Blueprovided the music, though both pieces feel curiously hollow when the gallery is empty. Interactivity demands interaction.
Of course, two decades ago, hip-hop wasn't playing call-and-response with the art world like Capistran is. At its best, hip-hop was intertextual, paying homage to its immediate ancestors and, of course, to itself. That was the lifeblood Jean-Michel Basquiat tapped into so viscerally in his work, represented best here by the oversize collage Toxic: corporate logos, half-finished sketches, crude swaths of paint, all contributing to an overvivid representation of the surrounding world. The only artist here who approaches Basquiat's lucid haze is Brit Chris Ofili, who contributes two signature works. Afrodizzia (2nd Version)is immediate and absurd, and Third Eye Vision conveys gloom. In both, Ofili's black-culture carnival is as confounding as it is beautiful.
In all fairness, though, Ofili may be the only one who's aiming in Basquiat's direction. For other artists here, appropriating the detritus of their surroundings isn't just an exercise in pastiche. Dario Robleto melts his recordsthe ones he hates and the ones he lovesfor his intriguing sculptures. In one piece, Robleto memorializes Sun Ra, Afrika Bambaataa, and Parliament in tiny urns, like precious spices or the ashes of a loved one. Mel Chin's two contributions to the show are direct and frightening. Night Raptransforms an ordinary police baton into a working microphoneone end is where the stories come from, the other is where they get recorded. HOMEySEW "9" asks even more exciting questions. A gun-wound treatment kit, angiocatheter and all, hidden inside a Glock 9mm handgun, this moving piece wonders what exactly it takes to sell healing to a community obsessed with violence. Is the way of the gun the only way in?
Chin's work, though powerful, ultimately feels pessimistic. Los Angeleno Kori Newkirk tempers his own pessimism with humor. Inspired by the high school students he once taught, Hip Hop From Home (Fake That Floss) is a loving, careful bit of cultural anthropology, a collection of mock jewelry that approximates hip-hop's obsession with all things glittery: a pipe-cleaner necklace, a fuzzy four-finger ring that reads "Cash," and the masterpiece, platinum tooth fronts crafted from gum-wrapper foil. Newkirk is disappointed in hip-hophe wants to say that the real versions of this jewelry are just as flimsy as his faux piecesbut his subversion of the genre's excesses is distinctly hip-hop in its own way, jerry-rigging an improvised solution to a difficult problem.