By Dan McQuade
By Brian McManus
By Hilary Hughes
By Jena Ardell
By Brian McManus
By Chaz Kangas
By Sound of the City
By Peter Gerstenzang
Reminiscing on his youth, Run-D.M.C.'s Darryl McDaniels told Yes Yes Y'all authors Jim Fricke and Charlie Ahearn: "I was going to Rice High School, 124th Street in Harlem, and all through my school, tapes was flowing the way albums would flow and records sell today." Compare that with DJ Kayslay's boast from his May mixtape, Month of the Bad Guy Pt. 1part of a 15-minute diatribe between himself and rival DJ Clue ("Radio Drama"): "I have motherfucking tapes that just dropped and ns ran in the stores to get it like it was albums!"
For most of hip-hop's history, mixtapes have been a form of underground currencyfurtively and fervently copied, bootlegged, or traded. Today, however, mixtapes (really, CDs) figure even more prominently in hip-hop's daily operation. They're no longer like albums; they, in essence, are albums, both in terms of how the industry helps produce them and in how fans receive them. These forces are radically transforming both the business and the culture of hip-hop with a force few would have believed, let alone predicted, even a year ago.
The mixtape's full history is too extensive to succinctly summarize (see Shaheem Reid's excellent MTV.com feature instead), but a brief background bears sharing. Mixtapes have traditionally encompassed everything from bootlegs of old school battles to club-like mixes of current hits to trainspotter collections of obscure esoterica. Within NYC, howeverfrom Canal Street to Jamaica Avenue to 125ththe most common mixtapes are compilations of new music, based on genre or artist. Many follow the model that DJ Clue began to pioneer in the mid-'90s: hour-long compilations of not just recent rap smashes, but more importantly, exclusive advance songs not due to be released for weeks, or even months.
Clue's stylefollowed by DJs like Kayslay, Whoo Kid, and Envyhas profoundly transformed the role of DJs from archivists to oracles. Says up-and-comer DJ Vlad (responsible, along with Dirty Harry, for The Notorious B.I.G.: Rap Phenomenon), "Take a Clue tape, put it down for three months and when you pick it up again, you will hear all the biggest hits on the radio and in the videos right now." Listeners gain access to advances formerly available to an inner circle of label, radio, and journalist personalities. Meanwhile, record labels receive important feedback on their artists and songs that helps with their marketing strategy. Says Justo Faison, whose annual Mixtape Awards are now in their eighth year, "You waste more money than just going to streets and trying to get a few songs on a mixtape or putting your own mixtape together and testing out the songs."
The popularity of mixtapes has empowered DJs to move from the street to the studio: radio, recording, etc. Not only have they all but taken over New York rap radioReid observes that of Hot 97's DJ lineup, "Kayslay, Funk[master] Flex, DJ Clue, Whoo Kid, Green Lantern, DJ Envy . . . these are all kids who made their name in the mixtape game"they're also joining labels as artists. Eighties legend Kid Capri was the first to translate his craft for the industry with The Tape(Cold Chillin') in 1991; later came Funkmaster Flex's five-volume 60 Minutes of Funk series (1995-2002, Loud), DJ Clue's double-platinum The Professional Pts. 1 & 2(1998/2000, Roc-A-Fella), and, most recently, Kayslay's The Streetsweeper Vol. 1, released in May on Columbia.
As more DJs become artists, more artists are releasing tapes themselves. While Clue prepped the powder keg behind the mixtape explosion, it's been 50 Cent who lit the match. Beginning in 1991, the unsigned rapper collaborated with DJ Whoo Kid to release four mixtapes (Guess Who's Back, 50 Cent Is the Future, etc.) that were, in essence, entire albums. "He blurred the lines of division between the traditional mixtape freestyle, indie album, and demo," acknowledges Jefferson Mao, former Ego Tripeditor. "50 Cent Is the Future couldn't have been more appropriately titled."
His mixtape success played a major role both in getting 50 signed to Eminem's Shady Records and propelling his official debut, Get Rich or Die Tryin', to sales well into the millions. Says DJ Vlad, "He had record deals, he had singles, but it's really the mixtapes that got him to where he is. For the first time, the number-one rapper in the world comes out, goes seven-times platinum, and tells everybody that he made it through mixtapes." This ignited a frenzy among other artists to follow suit. In the past few months alone, prominent rappers such as Jay-Z (The S. Carter Collection), the Diplomats (The Diplomats Vol. 1-4) and Snoop Dogg (Welcome 2 the Chuuch Vol. 1) have either released their own mixtapes or hosted others.
These developments are changing the very nature and perception of mixtapes themselves. Once, their appeal lay in a DJ's guerrilla stylehow brazen his or her appropriation of other people's music was. With the new coziness between DJs and the industry, even the language around mixtapes has altered. Diony C. sells thousands of mixtapes a month through his site, mixtapekings.com (his biggest buyers are in California, Florida, and the military), and observes, "Now that mixtapes are getting very album-looking, people want the official artwork, the official CD." That a mixtape/CD can now be described with a term like "official" marks a paradigm shift since the days when the term "bootleg mixtape" was redundant.