By Christian Viveros-Fauné
By Miriam Felton-Dansky
By Tom Sellar
By Tom Sellar
By Jessica Dawson
By Tom Sellar
By R. C. Baker
By Tom Sellar
Somehow we've grown accustomed to violation as prime-time entertainment. Violation of privacynot only do we contend with security cameras in public spaces, the invasive threat of the USA Patriot Act, and cell phone users covertly snapping photos of people, but we also have hidden TV camera crews prowling through once anonymous city streets, looking to catch us at our most vulnerable. And violation of trustmore and more reality shows weave blatant deception into their basic premise, throwing unwitting victims into situations that range from the surreal and embarrassing to the downright traumatic.
Reality TV is entering a chilling new phase. The old format of shows based on voluntary participation isn't producing the kind of spontaneous, voyeuristic thrills it once did. All traces of naturalism are gone; nowadays people play up to the camera, so that producers have to go further and further in pursuit of the "real." The only way to find unselfconscious reactions today is to catch people unawares. "Reality TV is now so unreal, that our show is almost more real," says Barry Poznick, co-producer of Girls Behaving Badly, Oxygen network's popular hidden-camera show. "Our marks have no idea they're on TV, whereas when you go on The Bachelor and Survivor, you know everything you say and do is being recorded." Girls Behaving Badly sends a team of female actresses into the street to pull pranks. Poznick calls it "mindfuckingthe girls play with what people expect a woman to do." The show wrings humor out of mild embarrassment, with particular emphasis on female taboos: convincing a male mark to pick up a tampon, or, in one segment, asking a male passerby to help search on the ground for a dropped ovary.
Girls Behaving Badly is just one in a swarm of series that entrap unsuspecting victims. Some programs, like Boiling Points, Game Show Network's now defunct Foul Play, and Spike TV's Oblivious, style themselves as undercover game shows. (Oblivious, just starting its second season, calls itself "the game show you don't even know you're on.") MTV's One Bad Trip allows parents to spy on their college-age kids' debauched spring break antics, while Punk'd exploits our love-hate feelings about the celebritariat by pranking the young Hollywood brat pack. In Comedy Central's Crank Yankers, comedians like Jimmy Kimmel and Wanda Sykes make crank calls to real people and then use puppets to protect the identity of these dupes. Plenty of other shows incorporate covert footage to hone their humiliation factor: What Not to Wear (on BBC America and TLC) prefaces each episode with hidden-camera images of the makeover victim in her schlumpiest attire, sometimes even observing her getting dressed. Talk about catching someone with her pants down.
Embarrassment and minor humiliation are just the lightweight end of the reality-TV scale. Increasingly producers are looking to induce violent emotional reactions in their victimsyou know, panic, disgust, terror. Aimed at the Sci Fi Channel's young male demographic, Scare Tactics is the hidden-camera equivalent of extreme sports, staging murders, hauntings, and alien abductions. In one scenario, host Shannen Doherty is kidnapped in front of her new personal assistant. In another, a stripper is bludgeoned at a bachelor party, and one of the guys is accused of the deed. Incredibly, all of the Scare Tactics victims are set up by someone they know. Scott Hallock, the show's co-producer, says they have an "accomplice department" that does extensive interviews with the friends or family members who volunteer the victim and help pull off the pranks. "We ask, Do they like thrill rides, do they like scary movies? If they don't, they're not a candidate for our show. We want everyone to have a good time."
Judging by the lawsuits that have emerged over the last few years, not everyone is amused. Last year, a woman filed a suit against Scare Tactics, citing severe emotional damage after she witnessed a fake alien attack. Contestants in a U.K. dating show called There's Something About Miriamin which men competed for the affections of a woman later revealed as a pre-operative transsexualrecently sued the program's producers, claiming conspiracy to commit a sexual assault, breach of contract, personal injury, and defamation. (They settled out of court.) And a couple sued Ashton Kutcher and MTV for $10 million after they found what looked like a mutilated murder victim dumped in their Las Vegas hotel room, planted there as part of a show called Harassment, a predecessor to Punk'd. Forget the quaint hidden-camera shows of yore like Dick Clark's TV's Bloopers & Practical Jokesthese recent shows veer dangerously close to snuff-movie territory.