By Jared Chausow
By Katie Toth
By Elizabeth Flock
By Albert Samaha
By Anna Merlan
By Jon Campbell
By Jon Campbell
By Albert Samaha
Why is today different from all other days? Who is this Bloom, and why does healong with Lincoln and Washington, Martin Luther King Jr. and Jesus, Valentine and Patrickhave his day?
For the uninitiated: Wednesday marks the 100th anniversary of Bloomsday, June 16, 1904, the day upon which all of the events of James Joyce's wonderwork, Ulysses, take place. Bloomsday celebrates neither the year of the book's publication (1922) nor that of Joyce's birth (1882). Rather, as Isaiah Sheffer, host and director of "Bloomsday on Broadway XXIII" at Symphony Space (to which we'll return), explains, June 16 is the world's sole annual "commemoration of a fictional date, a date in which something happened in a book."
What happens on this "allincluding" day? In Ulysses, Joyce reimagined The Odyssey, finding modern-day analogues for the characters and situations from Homer's epic poem in turn-of-the-century Dublin: prudent, gentle Leopold Bloom for Odysseus; the young would-be writer Stephen Dedalus for Telemachus; earthy, adulterous Molly Bloom for faithful Penelope; a day in the life for Odysseus's 20 years wandering.
Appropriating the outline of the ancient text, Joyce doesn't simply build a bridge between antiquity and modernity: He crosses it, then blows it up. For just as Bloom's peregrinations over this average day touch upon the full spectrum of human experienceeating, drinking, cooking, defecating, bathing; masturbation, sex, death, religion; athletics, politics, imagination; singing, sleeping, violence, drunkenness, childbirth (has ever a writer given a better sense of the clutter of life?)over the course of Bloomsday, Joyce puts the English language through its paces as well. The most formally daring of books, Ulysses begins as a more or less well-behaved 19th-century-style novel and then passes, chapter by chapter, through every conceivable narrative mode (third- and first-person narration, newspaper headlines and articles, an entire full-length play-within-the-book, catechistic Q&A) until it arrives at Molly Bloom's punctuationless interior monologue, which brings the book to a close with that simplest, most beautiful word of affirmation.
But back to Bloom. In his masterly biography, Richard Ellmann relates how Joyce chose to model his epic on Homer's poem because he considered Odysseus the most "complete" character in world literature (son of Laertes, father to Telemachus, husband to Penelope, lover of Calypso, king of Ithaca, companion in arms to the Greek warriors at Troy). Joyce longed to create a character of that magnitudean epic hero and everymanbut how to do it given the mundane material of modern life?
Ulysses is vaunted for its extravagant use of stream of consciousness (though "stream" seems to me too diminutive a description for a work of such linguistic rapids), and the means by which Joyce captures his protagonist's thoughts as they flit about the dayseemingly random, but accruing into a portrait not just of a single man, but of a city, a civilizationis an amazing achievement, one that brings Bloom achingly close. Equally extraordinary, however, is the physical Bloom: the Bloom who carries a bar of lemon soap in one trouser pocket, a lucky potato in the other; the Bloom who sleeps with his feet facing his wife's head; the Bloom who, just pages after being introduced to the reader, is seen on the toilet having a bowel movement. Joyce wants to fashion an epic of modern lifeof streets and pubs and brothelsand Bloom on the bowl counts as hero's work.
For all the book's myriad technical wonders, if Bloomsday has special significance it is because it's Bloom's day. This might seem self-evident, but it's really not. Rather than give Ulysses over to the book's other, major governing consciousness, the brilliant, astringent Stephen Dedalusthe surrogate figure high schoolers will be familiar with from A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, the prideful young man in black who, like his creator, refuses to kneel in prayer beside his dying motherJoyce awards the book to Bloom.
There is volcanic anger in Ulysses, to be sure, against bigotry and philistinism, but also the warmth of a backward-looking exile's embrace. Ulysses can be read, I think, as Joyce saying farewell to firebrand Stephen in favor of the more mature, married character. Advertising canvasser, Jewish outsider, cuckold, and all-round good-hearted schlemihl, Bloom has a greater sense of humanity than Stephen, and it is thisJoyce's acknowledgment that the Bloom who embraces others is ultimately more in league with the angels than the Stephen who self-consciously sets himself apartas much as anything else that makes the book great.
It is worth noting here that Joyce selected Bloomsday's date to commemorate the day that he and his life companion, the fantastically named Nora Barnacle ("She'll stick to him!" Joyce's father said), began their courtship. If Bloom is his author's richest creationas well as the greatest Jewish character in world literature: more forgiving than Moses, funnier than Jesus, filthier than Portnoyhe is indicative of the Joyce who said of Nora, the wife who'd read exactly 27 pages of his book including the cover, "She saved my life."
A spate of books surrounds Joyce and the 100th anniversary of Bloomsday: yes I said yes I will Yes., edited by Nola Tully; Carol Loeb Shloss's biography of Joyce's daughter, Lucia; Joseph Campbell's Mythic Worlds, Modern Words; and James Joyce's Dublin by Ian Dunn et al., which places significant and appropriate emphasis on the topography of the story's city. And there's the upcoming DVD release of Sean Walsh's lovely debut film, Bloom, an imaginative adaptation with Stephen Rea as Leopold and Angeline Ball as Molly. All of them are worthy additions for Joyceans, but what I'm most looking forward to this centenary year is "Bloomsday on Broadway XXIII" at Symphony Space.