By Christian Viveros-Fauné
By Miriam Felton-Dansky
By Tom Sellar
By Tom Sellar
By Jessica Dawson
By Tom Sellar
By R. C. Baker
By Tom Sellar
Though the '50s have gone down in legend as a time of comfort and conformity, there was plenty of rancor under its blank suburbanized surface. America was fighting a supposed "cold" war that kept blazing up into smaller hot ones like Korea. Nixon accused his political opponents of having "lost" China, as if that giant nation had somehow fallen out of their pants pockets. The concern that there might be Soviet spies in government offices, which was true, somehow kept oozing across, like a particularly nasty oil spill, into the less tenable notion that Americans who favored a different political system should be hounded from their jobs for thinking so, even if they were only actors on TV sitcoms. Off-Broadway, in those days, was one of the few refuges such artists had.
What was true in politics was also true aesthetically. All over Europe, theater was booming with creativity in the post-war recovery; in America, plays, foreign imports included, were Broadwayized to leave out anything too complex or troubling; even a Tennessee Williams was obliged to publish his original text (for Cat on a Hot Tin Roof) as an alternative to the "Broadway version." Bolder imaginative strokes were more likely to sneak by in musicals than in "straight" plays. That word seems particularly ironic, since many of the key plays of the 1950s were specifically about not being straight: Then, as now, gay was a big topic of media discussion: slightly scandalous, slightly titillating, always useful for mild comic relief or the manipulative half-gestures of Broadway melodrama. Gay as a phenomenon playwrights could observe seriously, like any other human phenomenon, was almost wholly a downtown matter; gay as a sensibility, outside the then clandestine signals of camp, didn't exist onstage till Off-Off-Broadway was born.
Still, no one would deny that things were easier then. Today we face bad news on every front, to a far worse extent than in the '50s. The big money, and the pressure it brings to exclude everything but commercialism, was merely national then; now it's global, far bigger and harder to resist, especially in an era when everything costs more. A relish for simple homemade pleasures used to exist in America on a parallel track to the pursuit of monetary success; nowadays it has gotten tangled up with the money system, so that the pursuit of synthetic pleasures has supplanted the homegrown ones: Every pleasure now comes with a brand name and a price sticker attached. (In the same way, the pleasure of knowing the people next door has been supplanted by the globalized celebrity culture: Folks in Kansas never dreamed that the president of their church could be a serial killer; but everybody knows all about Michael Jackson's peccadilloes.) The '50s were tainted with anti-intellectualism: People who read books were assumed to be leftist, queer, or possibly both. Today that willed ignorance has merged with religious extremism to become an anti-art, anti-science obscurantism that presages a new Dark Age. And nature is warning us that the depletion of natural resources means it may be dark in more than intellectual ways.
With so many forces arrayed against it, what chance does our theater have in the next 50 years? The answer, I suspect, is: pretty much the same chance it had 50 years ago. We know what the human spirit does when forced into a corner. It fights back. The history of all tyrannies is a history of rebellions; the history of art is a history of building alternatives to the received idea. The fat corporate cats who have hopes of reducing middle-class Americans (artists included) to unpensioned wage slaves with no governmental safety net are fools, living at the end of their empire, not at its beginning. I'm not proposing that every artist become a political rebel; art has more complex purposes and tactics than that. But so little good currently exists in our society that it seems natural to expect artists to reject it more strongly, to move toward the good. This may entail moving away from a lot of its manufactured goods. Technology is a wonderful thing, one of the great achievements of what used to be called "the American century." But that century is over, and now, as we watch the American Empire bloat to its inevitable explosion, like the frog in Aesop's fable, we might do wisely to start preparing for the barren time that will surely follow. Technology has enhanced the theater in many spectacular ways, but going back to the bareness of the human body and voice, on a bare platform, in "found" costumestheater as it was before the Industrial Revolutionmight even prove pleasurable as well as practical. Off-Broadway itself was born twice (the Provincetown Playhouse, the Living Theatre) out of such tactics; Off-Off-Broadway lived off them for decades.