By Jared Chausow
By Katie Toth
By Elizabeth Flock
By Albert Samaha
By Anna Merlan
By Jon Campbell
By Jon Campbell
By Albert Samaha
In Washington he invoked the phrase, "I have a dream," the way a blues singer repeats a key phrase. In Montgomery, facing the capitol, it was, "We are on the move now," that became the launching pad for a series of crescendo-like thrusts.
"We are on the move now," he said. "The burning of our churches will not deter us. We are on the move now. The bombing of our homes will not dissuade us. We are on the move now."
Now the throng responded with shouts of "Yes, Lord," and "Amen."
"The beating of our clergymen will not divert us. We are on the move now. Yes, we are on the move now, and no wave of racism can stop us."
King climaxed his speech by repeating four times with rising fervor, "Glory Glory Hallelujah." And then the cooks, maids, and janitors were crying and cheering at the same time.
There were supposed to be 26 shuttle buses waiting after the rally to ferry demonstrators from the capitol to the airport five miles away. But 21 of the drivers called in sick, and for two hours thousands milled around in a muddy lot a block behind the capitol while fives buses tried to do all the work. There was pushing, shoving, and maneuvering each time a bus pulled in. Finally an SNCC worker with a walkie-talkie told the crowd, "Come on, you're acting like kids. This ain't the New York subway."
By dusk, the troops had disappeared and the last handful, waiting unprotected in the lot, feeling fear for the first time during the day.
Chaos reigned at the airport. Hundreds sprawled on the lawn, picnicking, sleeping and singing. Huge lines pointed to the lavatories and phones; there were no snack counters. All outgoing flights were late.
After an hour's delay on the VID flight was ready to be boarded, except that there was no ladder available. So for another hour, the 104 weary passengers stood in a cramped line, 20 yards away from the plane, while a ladder was searched or, as some suspected, hidden.
Meanwhile, a few yards away, the dean of all civil rights leaders, 77-year old Asa Philip Randolph, had collapsed from exhaustion and Bayard Rustin and Michael Harrington tended him while dispatching friends to find a doctor. The Montgomery police seemed uninterested.
"It's my fault," Rustin mumbled. "I never should have gotten him up at 2 a.m. and he never should have walked those four miles."
At 10:45 New York time, the VID flight left the cradle of the Confederacy amid complaints to the Civil Aeronautics Board about the delay and caustic reflections on "Southern hospitality." There was no singing on the flight back. Most of the passengers slept. A few talked about the future of the civil rights movement, agreeing at the outset that Montgomery was just a skirmish in a long war whose end still lies beyond the rim of history.
Steve Berger, an aide to reform Congressman Jonathan Bingham, said the new voting rights bill was "pretty bad and very poorly drawn." Others, activists of the movement, thought no legislation could possibly deal with the specter of firing, beating, and murder that faces any Negro who tries to register in the Black Belt. Other militants spoke eagerly of the next battle the continuing attempt to unseat the five Congressmen from Mississippi by the Freedom Democratic Party.
Elizabeth Sutherland, who works for SNCC in New York, sat reading a private legal memorandum on the proposed voting bill, pointing out all its flaws and loopholes. "I just hope the registrars don't get their hands on this memo," she said.
And there was speculation about what would happen in the Black Belt now that the "civil rights tourists," Dr. King, the federal troops, and the outside journalists were leaving and the Negroes were left alone to confront the Jim Clarks, the racist registrars, and those terrible faces that looked down from those windows.
When the plane landed at Kennedy Airport, its passengers were told it had already happened murder. Nobody said anything memorable or poetic. They just cursed.