By Dan McQuade
By Brian McManus
By Hilary Hughes
By Jena Ardell
By Brian McManus
By Chaz Kangas
By Sound of the City
By Peter Gerstenzang
On October 30, 1975, the Daily News printed its "FORD TO CITY: DROP DEAD" cover. But long before that other unelected president refused to bail out our defaulting boroughs, us New York kids already knew we were fucked. It was Taxi Driver time, as Punk magazine writer Mary Harron put it in the oral history Please Kill Me. The Bronx burned, roads collapsed, crime surged, and city agencies kept shutting down; it seemed the stench of the previous summer's garbage strike would never leave. In September Ford was nearly assassinatedtwice, in three weeks, by two different women. And a monumentally failed foreign policy was encapsulated by the image of hapless Americans scrambling, like drowning rats, to a helicopter on the roof of the Saigon embassy. Going to school with a switchblade in your chukka boot, a half-pint of Southern Comfort, and some Tuinals swiped from Grandma in your army surplus book bagIt was apocalypse Now, man.
Onto this stage rode Horses, the debut by a skinny South Jersey girl named Patti Smith, released in November 1975. A number of years before the nexus of urban musical poetry would shift uptown and to the outer boroughs and explode bigger than anyone's wildest dreams, Smith spit verse at readings at St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, pal Lenny Kaye accompanying her freestyles with bursts of electric guitar. By the time of her famous seven-week stand at CBGB with fellow travelers Television in the spring of 1975, her performance readings had evolved into actual rock 'n' roll, although it was some next-level shit: heated sung-spoke visions of gender-melting sex and a violent, sneering, white-light quest for transcendence harnessed to garage band hooks and free-jazz liftoffs. Adding soundman-drummer Jay Dee Daugherty to a lineup that now included Kaye, pianist Richard Sohl, and bassist-guitarist Ivan Kral, the group hunkered down that summer and early fall with producer John Cale to make a record that represented a historic transition point in rock. With the formalism codified by The Ramones and Never Mind the Bollocks still to come, it was Horses that announced a shapeless, limitless New Thing, connecting rock's deepest '60s adventuring to punk's Lower East Side birth throes.
This month, Horses has been reissued in a package that includes a live recording of the LP as performed in June 2005 during London's Meltdown festival, which Smith curated. And on November 30 and December 1, the expanded lineup of the Patti Smith Group that performed in Londonwith Television guitarist Tom Verlaine and Red Hot Chili Peppers bassist Fleawill play Horses live at the Brooklyn Academy of Music. Earlier this month, Smith (over tea in a MacDougal Street café) and Kaye (over tea in his Brooklyn apartment near the Manhattan Bridge), talked about making Horses on the occasion of its 30th birthday.
Where were you living when you recorded Horses?
PATTI SMITH Here on MacDougal. I just had a room facing the street, I think it was 107. It was niceI could just walk to work. We recorded it at Electric Ladyland on 8th Street. It was great to record in the studio that Jimi Hendrix had designed to do his future work, which of course he never got to do. I was very conscious of that; it's why so much of the record is devoted to himthe long piece "Horses," and "Elegie."
The record conjures a lot of rock heroes. How did you decide to do the cover of Van Morrison's "Gloria"?
PS When I started performing, I'd do poetry and a couple of songs. When Lenny and Richard and I evolved, we started merging the poems with rhythmic patterns, so the poem became like a prequel to the song. I like simple, three-chord rhythms. And "Gloria" is so universal. It's so beautifully chauvinistic, so I decided that I would do the ultimate chauvinistic version.
My opening lines ["Jesus died for somebody's sins/But not mine"] were from a poem I'd written in 1970; I'd performed it as a poem with Lenny in 1971 when we did our very first poetry reading at St. Mark's Church together. So the evolution was an organic process.
There was always a lot of improv in the way you worked live. Was it hard to transpose that to the studio?
PS Only because I didn't have much studio experience at that time. For me, improvising is just pulling from the atmosphere. And I was surrounded by my compatriots, so it was a positive atmosphere. I still remember to this day improvising "Birdland" knowing they were right with me. I remember the exact moment where I peakedthe line in it that's like [incanting] "Shoot 'em like light/like Muhammad boxer"my little tribute to Muhammad Ali, y'know? It was a moment where you shiver.
LENNY KAYE I'll always remember "Birdland" going and going and getting wilder and wilder until we felt interstellar . . . just all of a sudden looking down at one's hands as they're playing and knowing that what you're connected to is not your conscious mind.
PS Lenny, Richard, and I could just move on a canvas together, we knew each other so well. We were in sync.