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Bourbon is a whiskey made with at least 51 percent corn in the mash, which is fermented for a couple of days and then distilled and aged in new, charred oak barrels. After that, knowledge about this classic American spirit can grow a bit hazy. Does it have to be made in Kentucky? What's the difference between straight bourbon and the regular stuff? Do bourbons that come from a single barrel or a small batch of barrels really taste better than those from a larger sampling?
Are there any common misperceptions about bourbon? People come in and have bar fights over what it's made from. The argument about Jack Danielsis it bourbon, is it not? By law, it's not. [But] it's the image that it is. A lot of people misunderstand the American whiskey categories. It is made like a bourbon, but it's charcoal-filtered through sugar-maple charcoal in a way that bourbon isn't.
[And] bourbon is bourbon once it hits the barrel. A lot of people will say that bourbon has to be aged for two years. No, straight bourbon has to be aged for two years. But most of the bourbon you see on the shelf is straight bourbon.
What do you look for when tasting a bourbon? I'm looking for a balance between wood age and corn sweetness. Quality's always subjective. I don't really think there's any bad bourbon on the market.
Are there any bourbons made outside Kentucky? There's pretty much not any. It doesn't have to come from Kentucky, but as Parker Beam from Heaven Hill says, "It better damn well be if it's any good."
[But it does have] to come from Kentucky to say Kentucky on the label. It's the only state that can put its name on the label.
How long should bourbon be aged? What is the ideal number of years: Six? 10? Over 20? Everybody has their own personal preference; I don't get into preaching a right or a wrong. A lot of the distillers I talk to say that they prefer something around 10 years old, because of the balance of it. The longer it ages, the drier it gets, the more astringent it gets. People coming from a Scotch background will often lean toward an overaged bourbon because they're wanting a stronger, more powerful, smoky charcoal flavor. Bourbon's a new wood. There's no need to have a ton of 35-year-old whiskey. If you had a bourbon that was 35-years-old, it'd taste like shit.
How does the particular mix of grains in the mash affect the flavor? A higher percentage of corn, for example? Corn has a natural sweetness to it. The more corn you get, the more sweetness. All bourbon has to be at least 51 percent corn, but most of them are made in the high 60s, low 70s.
And wheat makes it a little softer? A little softer, a little gentler whiskey. Rye offers spice, a little bite to it. Most of the bourbons have rye in the mash bill; only a handful have wheat. Maker's Mark is the one that people know the most as a wheated bourbon. The Van Winkle line, Rebel Yell, Old Fitzgeraldthat's about it.
Does where you age the barrel in the warehouse actually make a difference? Yes, the top of the warehouse is of course hotter, so you get more intensity there. People will take a cross section of their warehouse, if they're not rotating barrels. The center is more consistent. The single barrels a lot of times come from the center.
Does it matter how much the barrel is charred? Most people are using a level three or four charthe higher the number, the deeper the char, the woodier the effect you get on the whiskey, of course. There's only one I have that's below three: the Jefferson's is a level two. It's definitely lighter than a lot of other whiskeys. Deeper than 3 or 4, I think that's when the wood flavor overpowers the whiskey.
Distilleries are quite protective over the specific strain of yeast they use too, right? Have their ever been yeast wars? Everybody has their own proprietary yeast. Some people cultivate their own. People used to go home with their yeast; it was such a sacred thing.
The Van Winkle family claims that Pappy Van Winkle gave Mr. Samuels his yeast strain to start Maker's Mark. I don't know if that's true or not.
Does the water in Kentucky influence the flavor? Whiskey tastes nasty when it has iron in it. That's the beauty of the limestone-influenced water in Kentucky. It's filtered out a lot of the iron. It also has a little bit of calcium, which aids in the fermentation process.
Some people use spring waterMaker's Mark, for example. But not all these folks are exactly pulling water from a stream.
But it sounds so good when you have the story about some dude who looks like Davy Crockett. Yeah, when you have the tour and there's the little stream in the backyard. Ha. I always tell people that there's a lot of marketing behind these brands. People will come in and think there's some old man coming down the mountain with a donkey and a barrel on it. I'm like, do you realize there's eight distilleries cranking out a ton of whiskey?