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Ivana Estrada came to New York from La Paz, Bolivia, six years ago knowing barely enough English to sing along to her favorite American rock music. Estrada came here with the goal of attending college, something she felt was impossible in Bolivia because she couldn't earn enough money working there to pay for school. Her parentsher father a bus driver and her mother a housewifecouldn't help. Her sisters had tried college but never finished because they had to work.
She heard from a friend who had moved to the U.S. that it was easier to work and go to school here, so she decided to give it a try. She moved in with an uncle and took a job working at a 99-cent store in Queens.
She immediately started working on her English, writing down and translating the lyrics to Roxette's 1990 hit "It Must Have Been Love" and songs by the Eagles and Ozzy Osbourne. She spent time at the local library listening to English-language instruction tapes, and she searched through college guides. It was there that she first learned about community colleges as a much cheaper option than a four-year school. So she enrolled at LaGuardia Community College in Queens.
Starting out with English and math classes, she found that her command of the language quickly improved. After her first semester, Estrada was admitted to the international two-year-college honors society, Phi Theta Kappa. Her experience thereafter mirrored a typical student experiencefor a good student, that isat any four-year university: She decided to major in computer information systems, took honors classes, became a teaching assistant, and even spent a semester abroad in New Zealand.
Estrada was one of 16 students selected to take summer classes at Barnard, which inspired her to apply to the school as a transfer. Barnard admitted Estrada in 2003 and gave her a full scholarship. She graduated in December 2005 with a bachelor's degree in computer science. Now 24, Estrada works on Wall Street, helping develop financial software applications for Morgan Stanley's IT department. "One thing just led to another for me," said Estrada. "I never could have imagined it when I was in Bolivia."
Ivana Estrada attributes her successto LaGuardia. But her experience, while inspirational, is not typical of community college students nationwide. The reality, according to a new book on the state of American community college education, is low graduation and retention rates and fewer resources to handle increasing enrollments. In Defending the Community College Equity Agenda, researchers point out that community colleges are key in providing higher education and can serve as a bridge to the middle class for immigrants, people of color, and those in the lowest income brackets. But achieving that mission has been difficult, say the book's authors. Although four-fifths of the students entering community colleges say that their goal is to earn a bachelor's degree or higher, only 18 percent actually do that within eight years of their enrollment date.
That's not only very low but very troubling, considering that nearly 50 percent of all credit-earning undergraduates in the United States are enrolled in community colleges. "I think people are often surprised at that number," says Thomas Bailey, co-editor of the new volume and director of the Community College Research Center at Columbia University's Teachers College. "These are institutions that aren't on the radar."
Besides having half of all students nationwide, community colleges enroll a disproportionate share of the country's poorest students.
Bailey points out that community colleges are more dependent on state budget agendas than any other institutionCUNY schools receive funding from Albany, through local property taxes, and by charging tuitionand overall funding has been dwindling since the early part of the decade.
In spite of less funding and low graduation rates, enrollment continues to grow at community colleges. Bailey explains this in two parts. First, there are simply more college-aged students in the U.S. now, a result of immigration and the echo boom (baby boomers' children). Second, the growing necessity of at least some posthigh school training and the high costs of four-year schools mean more people are choosing community colleges because of their low cost and accessibility.
But the schools have trouble keeping up. "The students enrolled in com munity colleges are overrepresented by low-income, minority, and immigrant studentmany of the types of students that education policy makers are concerned with," explains Bailey. "And these schools receive less funding per student than public four-year colleges and universities." Moreover, say the book's authors, community colleges must, in a sense, be everything to everyone. For students like Ivana Estrada with ambitions of bachelor's degrees and beyond, community colleges offer honor society membership and accelerated courses, and they work to ensure that credits will transfer to four-year schools. But the schools also provide remedial courses for students with weaker academic skills, English classes for immigrants, and GED classes for students who never graduated high school. "They have pretty much had an open-door policy," says Bailey. As a result of their inclusiveness, community colleges spend about $1.4 billion annually on providing remedial education, the book estimates.
What concerns Bailey is that community colleges may increasingly try to overcome their budgetary challenges by becoming more selective in their admissions policies. "That goes against their mission in the first place," he says.
The value of that mission can be seen in terms of dollars and cents. Those who attend community colleges generally have 15 to 30 percent higher earnings than those who don't.
So the book's authors offer a number of broad recommendations for community colleges, including improving data management technology to monitor student progress, focusing on closing the racial and income achievement gaps, providing more direct counseling and advising, and reaching out to high schools in their communities to help teenagers prepare academically and socially for higher education.
CUNY's community colleges do have some innovative programs that address the challenges set forth in Defending the Community College Equity Agenda. Borough of Manhattan Community College has an "Out in Two" scholarship program that pays half of a student's tuition as long as he or she takes enough credits to earn an associate's degree in two years. The school's Academic Advisement and Transfer Center office blocks registration for any students who don't come in for a mandatory counseling session each semester.
Kingsborough Community College has a Diploma Now program that offers GED preparation for potential high school dropouts and a New Start program for students who have been expelled from college for academic reasons.
And at LaGuardia, Ivana Estrada was given the chance to take computer science courses at Barnard, which led to her earning a bachelor's degree. But even with these opportunities, Bailey and his co-authors point to significant barrierssocial, economic, and academicthat will continue to hinder community college student success. Estrada admits she was lucky. "I know I had an advantage," she says. "I was younger than most of the other LaGuardia students, and I didn't have any children."