Unpopular Vote


Colorado Rejects Proposal to Split Electoral Votes

A pioneering proposal to scrap Colorado’s winner-take-all system for awarding electoral votes to presidential candidates failed to overcome opposition from political figures on both sides of the aisle.

—Jon Sarche Associated Press, November 3, 2004

Backers of Change to Winner-Take-All Concede Defeat

Supporters of the campaign to change how Colorado votes for a president conceded defeat Tuesday night after early returns showed the measure failing by almost 2-to-1.

—Chris Frates The Denver Post, November 3, 2004

Kerry Wins All Four Maine Electoral Votes

All four of Maine’s electoral votes were won by Massachusetts Sen. John F. Kerry, who had gained a comfortable lead over President George Bush, according to unofficial results tabulated by the Bangor Daily News early Wednesday morning. With 87 percent of Maine’s 634 precincts reporting, Kerry carried 54 percent of the state with Bush garnering only 44 percent. Independent candidate Ralph Nader picked up 1 percent of the vote with other candidates rounding out the balance.

—A. Jay Higgins Bangor Daily News, November 3, 2004

Electoral Voting Product of Information Inaccessibility

Although thousands of Utahns will cast their votes today, only five votes will represent Utah’s voice for president and vice president of the United States. In fact, Utah’s five electors won’t even vote until mid-December – nearly a month and a half after the popular vote.

—Lane Stilson Daily Universe (UT), November 2, 2004

Electoral College Serves U.S. Well

Despite occasional distortions, the voting system reflects the will of the people and curbs extremism

What should an election system for choosing the president attempt to achieve? Certainly one goal is to reflect the popular will, an outcome that might (or might not, depending on how the system is structured) be achieved with a direct popular vote.

—Benjamin Zycher Newsday, November 1, 2004

California Contributes Plenty to the Nation’s Coffers. So Maybe We Should Hoard Our Electoral Gold Until Candidates’ Interest Rises.

It’s happened again. Because everybody already knows that California will deliver its 55 electoral votes to Sen. John Kerry, this state will be watching from the sidelines Tuesday. California is again—what’s that word they like to use?—irrelevant to the election.

—Adair Lara San Francisco Chronicle, November 1, 2004

Imagine If Texas and the Bronx Mattered (site registration required)

Except for the stop at a dairy barn, where Karl Rove got in a friendly iceball fight with reporters, it was a routine day for the Bush campaign: a bus trip through Wisconsin farm country; the roads lined with voters who had already seen both presidential candidates roll past their corn fields. As usual, the president extolled the heartland virtue of self-reliance while pledging to continue subsidies for dairy farmers and ethanol producers.

—John Tierney The New York Times, October 31, 2004

A Vote to Outsource the Electoral College

It is time for Americans to graduate from the Electoral College. It is time for Americans to cast a direct vote for president. In the 21st century, Americans are better-educated and better-informed about local and national affairs than at any time in American history. The so-called need for the Electoral College is gone. (“The Electoral College is likely with us to stay, despite critics,” Times, News, Oct. 22.)

—Anthony Medina The Seattle Times, October 31, 2004

Here’s Hoping for Chaos on Tuesday (site registration required)

Colorado voters can lead the way to a serious debate about our electoral college mess.

Part of me perversely hopes that Tuesday’s election is a replay of 2000.

—Jack Rakove The Los Angeles Times, October 31, 2004

Oakland Computer Ace Finds Election Equation

Program gives Kerry an 81.8 percent chance of winning as of Friday

Why read one presidential election poll when you can read 1,800 all at once?

—Josh Richman Oakland Tribune, October 31, 2004

Electoral College Resists Calls for Reform

Controversies began in early America

WASHINGTON — While much of America fixates on the possibility that Tuesday could rival the confusion of Election Night 2000, Harvard historian Alexander Keyssar is casting a look backward—to the 1968 contest pitting Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey not only against each other, but against third-party candidate George Wallace.

—Delia M. Rios The Times-Picayune, October 31, 2004

Repair the Electoral College (site registration required)

Four steps would help balance majority rule with minority rights

If Tuesday brings another mismatch between the electoral and popular votes, maybe we will finally get national agreement on a significant proposition: Our current electoral college system has got to go.

—Peter M. Shane The Washington Post, October 31, 2004

Laying Out the Pros and Cons of the Electoral College

Although it’s still best known in the hallways of government and social studies departments, the Electoral College will be thrust into the national spotlight again in a scant three days.

—Paula Holzman Intelligencer Journal, October 30, 2004

Repeat of 2000 Election Could Spark New Debate Over Electoral College

Election watchers are already talking about the possibility of one candidate winning the popular vote but another winning the presidency by taking the most electoral votes.

—Mark Sherman Associated Press, October 30, 2004

As the Race Tightens, Enthusiasm for a Ballot Proposal Wanes (site registration required)

Colorado Republicans were quick out of the gate this fall in criticizing a ballot proposal that would scrap the winner-take-all method of distributing the state’s nine Electoral College votes for president.

—Kirk Johnson The New York Times, October 30, 2004

Electoral College’s Time Has Passed (site registration required)

Re “The Electoral College Does It Better,” Commentary, Oct. 27: Writer Benjamin Zycher offers that the electoral college “occasionally frustrates the will of the plurality or the majority. But the founding fathers understood the dangers of direct democracy and struggled to create a system that reflected the will of the people while constraining the majority.”

—Jim Corbett The Los Angeles Times, October 30, 2004

Electors Await Chance to Cast Final Votes

All the speeches and Republican boiler-room calls in these final days aren’t really for George W. Bush.

—Mike Soaghan The Denver Post, October 29, 2004

Reforming the Electoral College (site registration required)

In his Oct. 21 op-ed column, “Electoral Fixes,” David S. Broder discussed the merits and demerits of the electoral college and every alternative except one: the method used by Maine and Nebraska to allocate their electoral votes. Their method is to give two votes—those that the states get for their senators—to the winner of the statewide vote and one vote to the winner of each congressional district. This is superior to the winner-take-all rule or to direct election.

The Washington Post, October 29, 2004

Campaigns Covet 10 Votes That Really Count (site registration required)

Ten Minnesotans will vote twice in this presidential election—legally. Jeffrey Carnes and Michael Meuers hope to be among them.

—Brian Bakst Associated Press, as reported in The Miami Herald, October 29, 2004

President Edwards? (site registration required)

It’s Jan. 20, 2005, and a stunned America watches as John Edwards is sworn in as both vice president and acting president of the United States. Impossible? No, nor is a Bush-Edwards administration.

—Stephen Marmon The New York Times, October 29, 2004

Measure to Split Votes Is Losing

Polls say 60 percent oppose amendment

The Rocky Mountain News/News 4 poll shows a proposal to divvy up Colorado’s nine electoral votes proportional to the popular votes is losing popularity fast.

—Ann Imse Rocky Mountain News, October 29, 2004

Voters’ Perspective Different in Altitude

Arm in arm, Democrats Ken Salazar and Mark Udall rush up a flight of concrete stairs Wednesday night to meet with a crowd considered tougher than a room full of GOP officials: college students.

—Karen Crummy The Denver Post, October 29, 2004

Pro-36 Leader Retains Hope

Consultant Ridder says measure is about ‘stronger democracy’

Joanie Braden was deep into labor, nearing the delivery of her child, when she noticed something that years later would strike her as both odd and normal.

—John B. Meadow Rocky Mountain News, October 29, 2004

Electoral-Vote Debate Turns On What Gives the State Clout

With all the money and attention paid to the campaign to change how Colorado picks a president, rhetoric and sound bites have held more sway than the merits of the Electoral College system. Scholars and campaign operatives offer arguments on both sides.

—Chris Frates The Denver Post, October 28, 2004

Electoral College Fiasco Looks More Likely

The odds that Tuesday’s presidential election will end in an electoral tie have doubled as the number of swing states has been cut in half, election analysts and mathematicians say.

—Joseph Curl The Washington Times, October 28, 2004

The Electoral College Does It Better (site registration required)

Forcing candidates to broaden their base reduces political extremism

What should an election system for choosing the president attempt to achieve? Certainly one goal is to reflect the popular will, an outcome that might (or might not, depending on how the system is structured) be achieved with a direct popular vote

—Benjamin Zycher The Los Angeles Times, October 27, 2004

Dividing State’s Electoral Votes Would Cut Clout (site registration required)

Colorado voters have an initiative on the ballot to abandon the winner-take-all system, and instead divide up their state’s electoral votes to match the popular vote. So what would happen if we did that in Idaho?

—Betsy Z. Russell The Spokesman-Review, October 24, 2004

Voting No on 36 Will Shield State’s Influence, Avoid Legal Nightmare

Have you heard the Yankees beat the Red Sox? You should have: The Yankees outscored the Sox 45 to 41 over seven games. But, you say, the Sox won the series by winning four of those games. Explain that to the supporters of Amendment 36, the measure that seeks to split Colorado’s electoral votes for president.

—Ari Armstrong Rocky Mountain News, October 23, 2004

Electoral-Vote Debate Turns on What Gives the State Clout

With all the money and attention paid to the campaign to change how Colorado picks a president, rhetoric and sound bites have held more sway than the merits of the Electoral College system. Scholars and campaign operatives offer arguments on both sides.

—Chris Frates The Denver Post, October 28, 2004

Amend. 36 Stays on Ballot

A federal judge on Tuesday threw out a challenge to a proposed constitutional amendment that would change how Colorado’s electoral votes are awarded in the presidential election.

—Alicia Caldwell The Denver Post, October 27, 2004

Tied Presidential Election Could Be Mother of All Messes (site registration required)

A freak tie result in the presidential election could mean the House of Representatives would choose the next president, a scenario that would favor Republican incumbent George W. Bush.

—Reuters, as reported in The New York Times, October 27, 2004

Examining the Electoral College

When Americans vote Tuesday for president, they are really voting for the 538 people who make up the Electoral College. Here are some answers to questions about the Electoral College.

—Emily Fredrix Associated Press, October 25, 2004

Judge Tosses Ballot Lawsuit

Fort Collins man brought challenge to Amendment 36

A federal judge threw out a challenge to Amendment 36 on Tuesday, saying the Fort Collins man who brought the lawsuit lacks legal standing. Jason Napolitano said he’ll drop the issue.

—Karen Abbott Rocky Mountain News, October 27, 2004

On Point, October 27

In Voters’ Hands

Can Colorado voters act as the state’s “legislature,” as defined by the U.S. Constitution, and change by initiative the manner of selection of presidential electors? Whatever the answer, U.S. District Judge Lewis Babcock rightly concluded that it’s not for the federal courts to decide.

Rocky Mountain News, October 27, 2004

Judge Dismisses Challenge to Electoral College Ballot Measure

A federal judge today refused to block voters from deciding on a measure that would change the way Colorado votes for president. The measure, Amendment 36, would scrap Colorado’s winner-take-all system for distributing its nine Electoral College votes.

—Steven K. Paulson Associated Press, October 26, 2004

Electoral College in the Spotlight, Again

WASHINGTON — Electoral College critics are on a Rocky Mountain high. Colorado will decide Nov. 2 whether to change the way it allocates electoral votes, a referendum that could win the presidency for George W. Bush or John Kerry—and revive controversy over what activist Rob Richie calls “an accident waiting to happen,” the Electoral College.

—David Jackson The Dallas Morning News, October 21, 2004

Colorado Eyes Electoral Vote Split

Instead of winner taking all, the nine votes would be divided based on the popular-vote results. Colorado voters will decide this fall whether their state should become the first to divide its electoral votes for president according to the popular vote.

—Paul Nussbaum The Philadelphia Inquirer Staff, September 14, 2004

Storm Clouds Gathering Over the Legitimacy of This Election (site registration required)

In a presidential campaign that’s grown increasingly bitter, maybe the one thing both sides can wish for is a decisive result.

—Ronald Brownstein The Los Angeles Times, October 25, 2004

Rethinking the Electoral College (site registration required)

As this year’s presidential campaign draws to a close, the country is still as evenly divided as it was in the year 2000. Reforming the Electoral College seems to be a recent Democratic concern, but over 700 Electoral College reform amendments have been proposed over the years—all to no avail. In fact, the GOP has favored Electoral College reform quite often. The author discusses this extremely complicated issue, and reviews the last presidential election’s math.

—Santa Medoza The Connecticut Law Tribune, October 25, 2004

Good Riddance 36

On one ballot initiative at least, common sense seems to be prevailing over partisan passion. Amendment 36, the mischievous measure that would dole out the state’s nine electoral votes proportionally, replacing the current winner-take-all approach, appears to be going down in flames.

Rocky Mountain News, October 24, 2004

Amendment 36 Foe Readies His Arguments

He says immediate effect of issue is unfair to unaffiliated voters

The man who has challenged a proposed amendment to the Colorado Constitution started out planning to be an automotive engineer. “I had a dream,” Jason Napolitano said. “I love cars.”

—Karen Abbott Rocky Mountain News, October 23, 2004

Proposal to Split State’s Electoral Votes Is Fairer to Coloradans

It is time for the people of Colorado to take the power of their vote out of the Electoral College and put it back into the hands of the voters themselves

—Senator DiAnna Schimek Rocky Mountain News, October 23, 2004

Poll: Amendment 36 Support Falling

According to a Survey USA poll for 9NEWS, opposition to Amendment 36 has grown in the last two weeks, when the last poll was taken. In the poll of 513 likely voters taken this week, 55 percent of the respondents were opposed to Amendment 36 and just 38 percent were in favor. Seven percent were undecided.

—Paola Farer The Denver Post, October 22, 2004

Forget Florida, Colorado May Supply Election Drama This Year

If you thought the Sunshine State’s 2000 election cliffhanger—with cries of voter disenfranchisement, ballot mishaps and a 537-vote margin that threw the election into the Supreme Court—had all the stuff of a made-for-TV movie, hold on to your seats; a ballot proposition in Colorado could make for a compelling sequel.

—Maggie Master MTV Choose or Lose, October 22, 2004

Electoral-Vote Issue Costly

Nearly $2 million raised in fight for, against Amend. 36

The Colorado ballot measure that has drawn worldwide attention is also banking big checks, as the campaign over whether to split the state’s electoral votes nears the $2 million mark.

—Chris Frates The Denver Post, October 21, 2004

Dems Oppose Electoral Vote Plan

Lamm, Salazar join GOP vs. Amend. 36

Prominent Colorado Democrats are lining up to oppose a constitutional amendment that would change the way the state doles out its nine electoral votes for president.

—Chris Frates The Denver Post, October 20, 2004

Should State Divide Its Electoral Votes?

Re: “Don’t divide electoral vote,” Oct. 10 endorsement.

Amendment 36 allows Colorado to lead the nation in disassembling the antiquated and inequitable Electoral College system.

—Patricia Corcoran The Denver Post, October 20, 2004

Peculiar Institution

Critics say the Electoral College is antiquated, undemocratic—and, many fear, impossible to get rid of. But in 1969, it almost met its end.

One of the more surprising features of the controversy surrounding the 2000 election was its failure to spark any sustained effort to abolish or reform the Electoral College. When it first became apparent that Al Gore had won the popular vote but lost the election, some politicians and pundits predicted that the end had finally come for America’s most peculiar political institution: Americans, after all, believed that democracy meant majority rule.

—Alexander Keyssar The Boston Globe, October 17, 2004

Our Electors, Ourselves (site registration required)

This Election Day, voters in Colorado will be asked to decide how their state’s electoral votes should be apportioned to the presidential candidates who appear elsewhere on the ballot. Voting “Yes” will award electoral votes in proportion to the votes that are cast; a “No” will retain the winner-take-all system.

—Christopher Caldwell The New York Times Magazine, October 17, 2004

Division of State’s Electoral Votes Seen as Ambitious, or “Really Stupid”

Concerned that your vote for president doesn’t matter? Check out Amendment 36. If approved Nov. 2, the ballot initiative would award Colorado’s electoral votes proportionally as a percentage of the statewide popular vote rather than the current, winner-take-all system.

—Susan Greene The Denver Post, October 17, 2004

Federal Lawsuit Challenges Colorado’s Electoral College Plan

A lawsuit filed Wednesday challenges a ballot measure that would scrap Colorado’s winner-take-all system for Electoral College votes and award them based on how well the candidate did in the statewide popular vote.

—Steven K. Paulson Associated Press, October 13, 2004

Making Every Vote Count Would Be a Tricky Proposition (site registration required)

Nearly 4.6 million Californians voted for George W. Bush in 2000. But their votes utterly had no effect on the outcome of the presidential election.

—Ronald Brownstein The Los Angeles Times, October 11, 2004

Don’t Divide Electoral Vote

Amendment 36 presents a tempting blueprint for making presidential elections a more modern and more equitable process. After all, there’s nothing sacred about the current approach—the Electoral College voted George Washington into office based on action in the original 11 state legislatures. The vote was unanimous.

The Denver Post, October 10, 2004

House Joint Resolution 109

Congressman Jesse Jackson, Jr. proposed a Constitutional amendment on October 8, 2004 that calls for abolishing the Electoral College and providing for a majority direct election of the president. This amendment was written with assistance from FairVote: The Center for Voting and Democracy and has it’s full support.

—The Center for Voting and Democracy, October 8, 2004

Top Democrats Mum on Amend. 36

Top Democrats are shying away from the campaign to divide Colorado’s electoral votes even though their fellow partisans spearheaded the effort.

—Susan Greene The Denver Post, Friday, October 08, 2004

Colorado’s Electoral Fix Could Bolster House, Not American Voters (site registration required)

It’s the heat of the campaign season—and the Electoral College is once again coming under sustained fire.

In one prominent example, The New York Times published a lead editorial calling for the abolishment of the venerable institution, warning that its “arcane rules” could “create havoc if things go wrong.” An amendment still sits before Congress calling for the college’s abolishment, just the latest of more than 700 proposed amendments in America’s history to reform or do away with the Electoral College.

—Joshua Spivak Roll Call, October 7, 2004

Let’s Reform Electoral System, Not Make It Worse (site registration required)

While we should reform the anti-democratic nation of the presidential selection system, the proposal in Colorado to allocate electors in proportion to the popular vote would likely be a worse cure than the disease.

The Boston Globe, September 30, 2004

The Colorado Solution

Reformers dreaming of abolishing the outdated, antidemocratic Electoral College have been hampered by the long and complex process required to amend the Constitution. But voters in Colorado have discovered that they can opt out of the most egregious aspects of the system by passing a simple state law. Should Colorado voters agree to the change in a ballot initiative this November, a new electoral math would take effect immediately for the 2004 presidential election.

The Boston Globe, September 27, 2004

Popular Vote? Better Not Count on It

TALLAHASSEE — President George W. Bush raced the insurance adjusters to the scenes of the three hurricanes that have struck Florida this season. The people of western North Carolina are still waiting for him, even though they were hit nearly as hard by Frances and Ivan.

—Martin Dyckman St. Petersburg Times, September 26, 2004

Coloradans to Consider Splitting Electoral College Votes

Colorado voters have delivered the state for the Republican presidential candidate in every election in the last half century, except when Bill Clinton won by a whisker in 1992 and Lyndon B. Johnson swamped Barry Goldwater in 1964.

The New York Times, September 19, 2004

Vote Against Amendment 36

State’s influence at risk

We first spotted the electoral college initiative in May and nothing since has changed our mind that it’s a piece of political mischief. We panned it then and urge a vote against it Nov. 2.

Rocky Mountain News, September 18, 2004

Electoral Conundrum

The proposed Amendment 36 to the Colorado Constitution would change the way Electoral College votes are awarded in the state. Proponents say we need this reform because too many citizens are disenfranchised under the current system; however, I believe “disenfranchised” isn’t a strong enough word.

—Reggie Rivers The Denver Post, September 17, 2004

Dems Battle Odd Couple of GOP Official, Nader

Call it dirty tricks. Or call it fighting fire with fire. Democrats’ legal battle to oust Ralph Nader from Colorado’s ballot marks the party’s latest effort to stop George W. Bush from winning another term in the White House.

—Susan Greene The Denver Post, September 16, 2004

Bush May Not Get Robb Vote

If the presidential election results in an electoral college tie, it’s possible that a West Virginia Republican, South Charleston Mayor Richie Robb, will have a decisive effect—by refusing to cast his electoral vote for President George W. Bush.

—Tom Diana The Wheeling Intelligencer

Robb’s Vote May Not Go to Bush

GOP mayor may use his Electoral College role to lodge protest against the president

South Charleston Mayor Richie Robb said today he may vote against George W. Bush in the Electoral College, even if the president carries West Virginia’s popular vote.

Charleston Daily Mail, September 8, 2004

In Voters’ Hands

Can Colorado voters act as the state’s “legislature,” as defined by the U.S. Constitution, and change by initiative the manner of selection of presidential electors? Whatever the answer, U.S. District Judge Lewis Babcock rightly concluded that it’s not for the federal courts to decide.

Rocky Mountain News, August 27, 2004

Group Pushes for Vote Switch: Colo. Would Split Presidential Tally

The wealthy president of a Brazilian university is bankrolling an initiative to end Colorado’s winner-take-all presidential electoral system.

—Susan Greene The Denver Post, June 15, 2004

Flash Back to 2000

Pressure Mounts for Electoral Reform

Washington is filled with talk about the deep divisions brought about by the election, but if there is an issue that Republicans, Democrats, and most Americans for that matter agree upon, it is that something must be done to improve the electoral system.

—Kevin Anderson BBC News, December 16, 2000

Electoral College—An Obsolete Concept?

By tonight, the candidate who won the popular vote may find himself without a credible claim to the presidency. Once a topic for high school debating teams, the Electoral College has now shot to the top of the nation’s political agenda.

The San Francisco Chronicle, November 26, 2000

Who Are the Electoral College?

Faithless Electors

1960—Oklahoma Republican elector does not cast vote for Richard Nixon

1968—North Carolina Republican elector casts protest vote for George Wallace

1972—Virginia Republican elector casts vote for Libertarian

1976—Washington Republican elector votes for Ronald Reagan instead of Gerald Ford

1988—West Virginia Democrat elector votes for Lloyd Bentsen for president instead of Michael Dukakis

All US states nominate representatives to the Electoral College which formally chooses the president.

—Kevin Anderson BBC News, November 14, 2000

In Defense of the Electoral College

Critics have long derided the Electoral College as a fusty relic of a bygone era, an unnecessary institution that one day might undermine democracy by electing a minority president. That day has arrived, assuming Gov. Bush wins the Florida recount as seems likely.

—John Samples The Cato Institute, November 10, 2000

The Electoral College, Unfair From Day One

NEW HAVEN — As we await results from the Florida recount, two things should be clear. First, if George W. Bush, having apparently lost the popular vote, does indeed win at least 270 electoral votes when the Electoral College meets, he is the lawful winner, who played by the Constitution’s rules and won.

—Akhil Reed Amar The New York Times, November 9, 2000

The Case Against the Electoral College

The nation holds its breath as it awaits the results of the ballot recount in Florida. It’s as simple as this: the winner of Florida’s popular vote wins the presidency

—Steven Hill & Rob Richie The Hartford Courant, November 9, 2000

Electoral College System Understood By Few

Think you’re voting for president? Think again.

NEW YORK (CNN) — If you think you are going to cast a vote for one of the presidential candidates, think again—and look again at the small print on the ballot of that state.

—Garrick Utley CNN, November 7, 2000

Electoral College Outlives Usefulness

George W. Bush and Al Gore have been criticizing each other for “fuzzy math.” But how’s this for fuzzy math: There is a real chance that the presidential candidate who wins the most votes this year will not win the election.

—John B. Anderson USA Today, November 2, 2000

Math Against Tyranny

When you cast your vote this month, you’re not directly electing the president—you’re electing members of the electoral college. They elect the president. An archaic, unnecessary system? Mathematics shows, says one concerned American, that by giving your vote to another, you’re ensuring the future of our democracy.

—Will Hively Discover Magazine, November 1996

Fix System Before We Elect ‘Loser President’

If most American voters cast ballots for George W. Bush, but Al Gore still manages to end up in the White House, folks would suspect the election was fixed.

—Burt Constable The Daily Herald (IL), October 26, 2000

The Perils of the Electoral College

Gov. George W. Bush and Vice President Al Gore are riding a roller coaster in the presidential contest, with first one in the lead, then the other. Even with Gov. Bush in the lead on the popular voter, some odds makers still give Gore the lead in the projected Electoral College vote. Bizarrely enough, in the case of such a head-on collision, the U.S. Constitution trumps the vote of the people.

—Steven Hill Roll Call, October 2000

Time to Reform the Electoral College?

In the 1992 presidential race, Democratic candidate Bill Clinton accomplished what at the time seemed impossible: winning the state of California—then a Republican stronghold—over President George Bush. Clinton courted California like no other national office-seeker had before and was able to use his win there to sew up the election.

—Ellen Sung, July 27, 2000


Global Exchange

Global Exchange is an international human rights organization dedicated to promoting political, social and environmental justice globally.

FairVote: The Center for Voting and Democracy

The Center conducts research, analysis, education and advocacy to build understanding of and support for more democratic voting systems. We promote full representation as an alternative to winner-take-all elections and instant runoff voting as an alternative to plurality elections and traditional runoff elections., produced by the Election Reform Information Project, is the nation’s only non-partisan, non-advocacy website providing up-to-the-minute news and analysis on election reform.

Instant Runoff Voting was created and is managed by the Midwest Democracy Center, a Chicago-based non-profit organization dedicated to making our government more democratic and representative.

The League of Women Voters

The League of Women Voters, a nonpartisan political organization, encourages the informed and active participation of citizens in government, works to increase understanding of major public policy issues, and influences public policy through education and advocacy!

Californians for Electoral Reform

CFER is an action-oriented site that is campaigning for more of the successful local ballot measures in California as well as state legislation.

Midwest Democracy Center

A Chicago-based membership group that advocates for electoral reforms to make our governments more democratic and more representative. They include: cumulative voting for the Illinois House of Representatives in three-member districts so everyone (including political minorities) have a voice, instant runoff voting, same-day voter registration. One particular project is Illinois Citizens for Proportional Representation, which pushed to restore cumulative voting for the Illinois House of Representatives and adopt full representation for local elections.

FairVote Minnesota

FairVote Minnesota is a coalition of concerned citizens formed to educate voters throughout the state about the advantages of other ways of voting, especially Full Representation systems.

Washington State Citizens for Proportional Representation

Washington Citizens for Proportional Representation represents Washington State voters of all political persuasions and is dedicated to full and fair representation in local, state and federal elections. We work to increase voter awareness of alternative methods of elections that will give us all a greater voice in government.

Independent Progressive Politics Network

The Independent Progressive Politics Network promotes full representation, instant runoff voting and other reforms.

Instant Run Off Voting

An animated guide to the instant run off voting process

Law and the Electoral College

Federal Election Commission Article: “How the Electoral College Works”

Federal Register: Frequently Asked Questions About the Electoral College

Distribution of Electoral Votes

U.S. National Archives and Research Administration: “What Is the Electoral College?”

The Constitution of the United States (from the National Archives)

Constitutional Amendments (including Amendment 12, which created the electoral college)

The Federalist Papers

Compiled by Nicole Duarte