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Michelle Yeoh and Zhang Ziyi became role models for women in 2001. And on the heels of Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon's four Academy Awardsincluding the statue for Best Foreign FilmYeoh and Zhang's status as heroines has only been further entrenched. They made Kung Fu look beautiful, athletic, and sexymuch as Cameron Diaz, Drew Barrymore, and Lucy Liu did in Charlie's Angels and Sandra Bullock did in Miss Congeniality. These are qualities that are held high and yearned for in our culture. So it should be no surprise that there's been a recent surge in women taking up the martial arts.
Granted, in Charlie's Angels, the women do all this in high heels and skin-tight clothing while on cell phones with their boyfriends, but nevertheless, Hollywood is showing us that "save me, save me!" characters aren't as appealing to today's women. And, per usual, pop culture dictates changeas much as it reflects it. In the last year, female enrollment in martial arts schools has jumped. Beyond that, in the last five years, it's become increasingly desirable for women to know how to defend themselves and not just be a tied-up Jane waiting for Tarzan to come along and rescue them.
Master Kwang Sup Kim, who runs the Professional Taekwondo School on East 23rd Street, says he has seen a great increase in female enrollment in recent yearswith a particular boost this year. "I think they start because they want to be in shape," says Kim. "Also, because of the movies they see coming out. Then, they start to understand the philosophy, and many of them stay."
There also seems to be a different kind of woman taking these classes. It used to be that the women who practiced martial arts often participated in other sports as well and were very athletic. Now, according to Kim, 70 to 80 percent of the women who begin taking classes have no previous athletic experience.
Says one white belt at Kim's school, "I never really did sports before. I just thought this would be a better way to stay in shape than joining a gym and doing the StairMaster. Besides, it helps with mental focus and getting out aggression!"
But it took some time for Kung Fu, Karate, Taekwondo, and other martial arts to catch on with women. Back in the day . . . well, three thousand years ago, men learned martial arts in order to go to war. In fact, says one instructor at the Professional Taekwondo School, "the word martialmeans 'fighting to the death.' " That wasn't exactly a chick thing to do.
As time went on, women started participating in sports like ice skating, tennis, and swimming. These were considered socially acceptable sports for the female gender. In the '60s and '70s, while women fought for equal rights, they were burning their brasbut apparently not their sports bras.
In 1972, Title IX was passed, requiring equal funding for men's and women's sports in secondary and post-secondary educational institutions. Before Title IX, only one in 27 female students participated in sports; today, that figure is one in three. Title IX also eliminated quotas on the admission of women students to law, medical, and business schools. The tearing down of these occupational boundaries encouraged more women to think of sports as a career possibility.
Bodybuilding, baseball, fencing, soccer, and even boxing and martial arts became more socially acceptable for women throughout the '80s and '90s. Still, the entry of women into these more physical and combative sports has been a slow process. For the martial arts, it required a change in the way they were taught.
Sensei John McGettigan of the World Seido Karate Organization on West 23rd Street, says that 20 years ago classes were a lot tougher and focused on physical strength. They were more intimidating to a prospective student. Gender and age may have played a part in whether or not people wanted to attempt a class. "I'm sure if you were a tough woman, you could get through it," McGettigan says. "But now, we hold your hand more. The classes are a lot more nurturing. Forty percent of our students are female."
When asked if he thought the current films affected enrollment, he said, "I don't see why they wouldn't. That's why I got startedBruce Lee films!"
"Any kind of awareness will always bring in new people," says Priscilla Chen, of the William Chen Tai Chi Chuan School, also on West 23rd. She said that doctors are even prescribing Tai Chi as a form of alternative healing. This makes it more appealing for everyone. "Now, our older members are bringing their children in. It's a gentle introduction to the martial arts."
Lubo Penev, an instructor at the Professional Taekwondo School, agrees that featuring women as strong, smart fighters is inspiring, though he doesn't find the quality of martial arts in the films to be particularly good or accurate. Still, the cultural changes have had their effect; Penev says that he has taught more women than men since the school opened five years ago. Three became black belts this year.