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On October 15, Derrick Chandler will begin walking from Times Square to Washington, D.C. In addition to water, candy bars, the Bible, and the Koran, he'll bring along his daily meds, because Chandler has AIDS.
The 49-year-old community organizer at Housing Works won't be alone. Also going to D.C. for Campaign to End AIDS's "Five Days of Action," a work week of rallies, prayer vigils, and demonstrations scheduled to begin November 4, are 10 caravans from around the country.
"Out of all the caravans, only we've decided to walk," Chandler says with a chuckle. "Initially everyone thought, 'What! Walk?' But then we gradually came to grips with it, and now everyone's looking forward to it. I know I am." Drawing their inspiration from Martin Luther King Jr.'s Poor People's March on D.C. in 1968, Chandler and the others are trying to draw attention to the AIDS epidemic currently ravaging African American communities across America.
Of the nearly 1 million AIDS cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control through 2003, African Americans accounted for just under 40 percent of the total, though they make up only 12 percent of the U.S. population. Of the 40,000 new HIV infections reported each year, 55 percent of infected individuals these days are black, according to Robert Fullilove, professor of clinical health at Columbia University.
These statistics seem impossible to ignore, but they have been. "HIV and AIDS are not talked about as much anymore," says Chandler. "People have become apathetic towards it. A lot of people were under the impressionnot that it was cured, but because of breakthroughs with the medicinesthat we were all right. But the fact remains that our black and Hispanic communities are being decimated."
But what some have called this "new face of AIDS" is not new at all. Since the beginning of the epidemic in the early 1980s, AIDS has devastated the black community in comparable measures to the gay population. By 1986, a quarter of all people with AIDS in the United States were black, while only 10 years later 54 percent of all new cases were black.
But apart from Magic Johnson's 1991 admission that he had contracted HIV, the public face of HIV and AIDS was white. "When it was first in the news, how was it portrayed? As a gay white man's disease," says Shawn (not his real name), an African American counselor at the AIDS Service Center on 11th Street in the East Village. "We said, 'We ain't got to worry. They ain't talking about us.' But now look what happened."
Gender lines have also long since been broken. In 1998, AIDS was the leading cause of death for black men aged 25 to 44; it is now the number one killer of black women aged 25 to 34.
"Long before I became infected," Denise, a young black HIV-positive mother of three, tells the Voice, requesting that her real name not be used, "my mother had died from the virus, my father was living with the virus, and I had twin sisters that were living with the virus.
"My story don't consist of street corners, and I've never shot drugs. Now, how the fuck am I HIV-positive?"
In fact, black women account for nearly 60 percent of all women with AIDS and are 25 times more likely to be diagnosed with HIV than white women.
But indifference, even inside the community, seems to shroud the astounding statistics. The caravan plans to wend its way through the neighborhoods hardest hit by HIV and AIDS at each city where they're scheduled to stop, says Chandler, adding, "I'm hoping that this inspires some people to come out and either acknowledge their personal status, or the problem at large, while we're in their town."
Shame and homophobia add to the seeming indifference about AIDS. Recently at Levels Barbershop, on 125th Street in Harlem, customers lined the benches, waiting for fresh cuts; the conversation snapped like popcorn. But when one employee was asked to talk about AIDS in the black community, he demurred.
Outside on the stoop and out of the earshot of the crowd, however, he was more accommodating, saying, "I know that the percentage of African Americans contracting AIDS has increased in the last five to 10 years. That comes from people not strapping up. I'm in a relationship right now with someone who's HIV-positive, but I always protect myself. A lot of these cats out here don't think. A lot of women tooespecially young girls. People still take chances."
Churches, long an important force in black communities, haven't been at the forefront of this particular battle. To Sandra (not her real name), a 46-year-old African American woman on staff at the AIDS Service Center and a minister at a black church, it's about stigmas. "The African American perspective is one from which we don't talk about sex," she says. "In churches, it's an abomination to be gay, and it's 'fornication' to have sex if you're not marriedso we have these stigmas that we put before people."