By Jared Chausow
By Katie Toth
By Elizabeth Flock
By Albert Samaha
By Anna Merlan
By Jon Campbell
By Jon Campbell
By Albert Samaha
The difference between now and before is, of course, the September 11 tragedy. It's a difference being felt across New York and the nation, in the form of a worsening recession and skyrocketing public costs. But if middle-class people are anxious about the tough times ahead, those who were already struggling are now experiencing "desperation," according to York-ville pantry executive director Jeff Ambers.
The Coalition Against Hunger reported an average increase of 56 percent in demand for emergency food following the terrorist attacks at the 63 pantries and soup kitchens surveyed as of September 26. Coalition spokeswoman Beverly Cheuvront attributed the rise to lost jobs and family providers, as well as to computer failures in the city's public benefits system. But "the demand [for food relief] has been going up every year, even in 1999, when we were in the strongest economy in years," she said. In 2000, about 600,000 people a month needed emergency food, she said. Homelessness, another measure of poverty, had before September 11 reached numbers in New York City not seen since the late 1980s, with a nightly shelter population of over 25,000. And 2.3 million people in the metropolitan area were living in poverty$14,500 in annual income or less for a family of threeas of March 2000, according to Marc Cohan of the Welfare Law Center. For a lot of people, in other words, things were already bad when the towers fell.
The buildings' collapse wiped out Francine Cutter's best shot. A domestic violence survivor and mother of two, she had been on her way off of welfare, training to do phone surveys for a company that serves corporate clients. But as the demand for consumer surveys disappeared, so did her promised job. Maria Hernandez of East Harlem, a single mother of one, used to get by on food pantry goods and subminimum wages from working in Manhattan's garment factories. Now, though, "I've gone to look, there's no jobs," she said. "None." First fired and not likely to be hiredsuch is the state of low-wage workers, like restaurant and hotel staff, janitors, sales clerks, factory workers.
The Independent Budget Office soon plans to release an estimate of how post-September 11 hardship will expand the city's welfare rolls, but it doesn't take an economist to know public assistance is becoming increasingly vital. The direct loss of jobs due to the trade center collapse has been put at about 110,000, the indirect impact incalculable. Mark Levitan of Community Service Society guessed there would be "tens of thousands" more people needing welfare. For now, the IBO's Doug Turetsky offers the grim numbers from the fiscal crisis of the early 1990s: a rise from 671,000 in December 1990 to 859,000 in December 1994.
The looming clamor for public assistance raises the stakes on the system's existing problems. Giuliani's infamous slash-and-burn welfare-cutting policies bred resentment and fear in some parts of the city. Before he had disaster response, one of his biggest boasts was having cut 600,000 people from the welfare rolls.
Just before September 11, the hot topic among welfare advocates had been the city's plans to force recipients maxing out on federal benefits to reapply for the state's supplemental program, when the city had the option of automatically transferring them. "Given all the chaos now, it would be criminal," Levitan said, to force a complicated reapplication process. And yet, even though the trade center disaster had much of the human resource agency's computer system down for days, Arnette Wooten of Brownsville received her "time is running out" letter, dated September 19. Approximately 38,000 familiestwo-thirds of the affected are childrenstand to get the same note, terrorism or no terrorism.
Wooten, 40, the mother of seven children under the age of 10, complained that the letter gave no details or instructions, only an ominous warning. "I just want to know what's going on. But none of the workers at the public assistance center know. Even the supervisors don't know. So why do they send letters to people, just torturing them?" Wooten asked. The benefits she stands to lose: $377 a month, for a family of seven.
Then there are those who have labored and pumped money into the local economy for years, but can't apply for the help they need now. Undocumented workers are not eligible for welfare, food stamps, or unemployment insurance, and there are complicated conditions even for immigrants with papers. Some of the immediate disaster relieffrom the Red Cross, for instancehas been available regardless of status. And Asociación Tepeyaca tiny migrant workers' agency whose large media presence in recent days speaks to the dearth of groups serving the undocumentedis raising funds and providing other services on behalf of the least visible victims.