By Jared Chausow
By Katie Toth
By Elizabeth Flock
By Albert Samaha
By Anna Merlan
By Jon Campbell
By Jon Campbell
By Albert Samaha
Giuliani is seen as the new white knight for troubled corporations, the Times reported; "the crème de la crème of clean," as one arbitrageur put it.
The former mayor has enjoyed the benefits of both the bull market and the bear market on Wall Street. As mayor, he presided over the city at a time when the stock boom swelled city coffers, providing five straight years of billion-dollar-plus budget surpluses that greased his term in office and helped him avoid the toughest budget crunches. Now that the stock bubble has burst, the hero of 9-11 is now in a position to profit as a private consultant to those same Wall Street entities as they struggle to pick up the pieces.
Private citizen Giuliani has to be happier still that as the current city administration wrestles with a mammoth budget crisis, his own contribution to those fiscal woes has largely escaped scrutiny. Giuliani's approval ratings remain sky-high, while those of Mayor Mike Bloomberg, the one struggling with the deficits, have plummeted as he talks bluntly about the need for cuts.
An infinitely courteous Bloomberg has so far declined most finger-pointing, especially at Giuliani, whose endorsement last year helped win him office. The City Council leadership has been similarly reticent. The reasoning in both wings of City Hall is presumably that little purpose is served in riling the enormously popular former mayor, possibly sending him off on a diatribe of his own.
Giuliani himself worried about none of those courtesies when he took office, repeatedly accusing former mayor David Dinkins of exacerbating city fiscal problems and then hiding them.
Budget analysts say, however, that the Giuliani contributions were manifold.
"He dug a deep fiscal ditch," said Harvey Robins, a budget watchdog who served as an aide to the Koch and Dinkins administrations. "There were a number of choices Rudy could have made to improve things, but he preferred either to ignore long-standing problems or deny their existence."
"While 9-11 and the recession certainly bear some of the blame for the city's fiscal plight, the Giuliani administration failed to address the fundamental structural imbalance in our finances," said Doug Turetsky of the city's Independent Budget Office. "In fact, that imbalance may have worsened in the latter years of his term as recurring expenditures grew faster than sustainable tax revenues."
The city's five consecutive years of record earnings are the most in its history, according to the Citizens Budget Commission, a nonprofit fiscal analysis organization. "They dwarfed anything in the past," said Diana Fortuna, president of the organization. The surplus was a whopping $3.2 billion in fiscal year 2000, and $2.9 billion in fiscal 2001.
"I think it was a conscious decision to develop a surplus," said Fortuna. "They used conservative revenue forecasts and the surplus would keep getting bigger. Then they would say, 'We are going to use it in next year's budget.' We'd say, 'This is a giant one-shot deal and you won't have it there when we need it, and there will be a bigger budget gap.' "
When recession hit in late 2001, the surplus was suddenly needed. "That is part of why we have such a large gap now," said Fortuna. "If we had been living within our resources in the late '90s, we would have a gap that is $2 billion less today."
Another way to handle the surplus might have been to pump it into projects aimed at productivity savings, said Turetsky. "It is when you have surpluses that you are best able to invest in productivity changes that make the workforce function more efficiently," he said.
For example, the IBO suggested, the city could have invested in dual-bin sanitation trucksa common sight outside the citythat would have enabled the city to cut an entire separate recycling pickup. Or, in another widely used and cost-efficient sanitation method, the city could have equipped sanit trucks with metal arms for overhead pickups of standard street containers, an improvement over current labor-intensive procedures.
City expenses also grew during Giuliani's term. The Republican mayor came into office vowing to reduce the size and cost of government. He made good on the pledge during his first term, bringing overall city spending down by 2 percent. But the second term was a different story. City expense spending (not including state and federal contributions) rose by 6 percent in 1998, 4 percent in 1999, another 6 percent in 2000, and, finally, an added 9 percent in the Giuliani administration's last full year, according to the Independent Budget Office. In the last five years of the Giuliani administration, spending grew at twice the rate of inflation.
Debt service, which represented just 5 percent of the city's budget at the beginning of his administration, accounted for 17 percent of the city's budget by the time he left office.