By Christian Viveros-Fauné
By Miriam Felton-Dansky
By Tom Sellar
By Tom Sellar
By Jessica Dawson
By Tom Sellar
By R. C. Baker
By Tom Sellar
In March 2002, a group of authors and critics told Book mag that lit's top fictional dog, post-1900, was good old Jay Gatsby, from that status-conscious Ivy chap's 1925 book. Not a big shock to most; but lipogram aficionadosfolks who lash words and (alas!) brains so as to omit particular symbolsdid in fact gasp, saying, "Hold that ringing communication tool for a bit! What about J. Gadsby?"
John Gadsby, "Youth's champion," is the hero of Ernest Vincent Wright's 1939 Gadsby, fearlessly subtitled A Novel of Over 50,000 Words Without Using the Letter "E." Like the paragraph above, the book eschews our tongue's bedrock letter. The absence creates a tone alternately lofty ("It is an odd kink of humanity which cannot find any valuation in spots of natural glory") and rambunctious ("Books!! Pooh! Maps! BAH!!"), and demands comical circumlocutions for the simplest thingsa turkey dubbed the "Thanksgiving National Bird," a wedding cake rechristened "an astonishing loaf of culinary art." The languorous tale shows how Gadsby harnesses the energy and ideas of young people to turn the backwater of Branton Hills into a bustling city. Children stump for civic projects, such as the establishment of a park and a library, and Gadsby soon becomes mayor.
Wright was born in 1872 and died in 1939legend has it, on the day the Wetzel Publishing Co. brought out Gadsby. Some accounts say he was English, or a sailor, or both, though the former claim seems dubious. He had written three previous books, two of which involve fairies, and is also known for a comic poem, "When Father Carves the Duck." A 1937 Associated Press item states that he lived at the National Military Home in Los Angeles, served in the World War as a musician, and had graduated from M.I.T. in 1889. In fact, he attended M.I.T.'s School of Mechanic Arts, essentially a two-year high school program for local youth, which replaced familiar subjects with such shop-type skills as carpentry and metalwork. It is unclear whether Wright graduated. The school catalog lists him as a first-year student in 1888, but he's a "special" student the next year. After that, his M.I.T. record is blank.
In any case, the school's name is fitting, for nothing better describes the method of Gadsby's composition than "mechanic arts." As Wright states in his introduction, he tied down the E bar of his typewriter to prevent any of the verboten vowels from asserting themselves, though "many did try to do so!" The restriction forced him to hunt for synonyms and assay lucid contortions, and he modestly submits that the book "may prove a valuable aid to school children in English composition." His motivation for embarking on the project is at once explicit and murky. To the AP, he claimed the eureka came upon reading that "the letter 'e' occurred five times more than any other and after seeing a four-stanza poem without an 'e,' " while the novel's introduction tells how his "balky nature" chafed at "hearing it so constantly claimed that 'it can't be done; for you cannot say anything at all without using E, and make smooth continuity, with perfectly grammatical construction' so 'twas said." But perhaps his reasons are more private, less explicable. As author William Poundstone, a Gadsby fan, drolly points out, "When was the last time you ever heard some blowhard going off about how you can't say anything without using E? The last time I heard it was never."
In the world of Branton Hills, a face is a "physiognomy," and eyes are invariably "orbs." Some traditional sayings get playfully alteredmusic can "calm a wild bosom," while Keats's notion that "a thing of beauty is a joy forever" turns into "a charming thing is a joy always." (The polymorphous, anything-goes ethos is literalized in Gadsby's son Bill, who designs girls' skirts that can be turned inside-out in foul weather.) Every so often, Wright lets loose a refreshing blast of authorial hot air, noting how the novel's "strict orthographical taboo" hinders his full eloquence. Yet for all his self-consciousness, Ernest Wright writes earnestly enough. He maintains a moral stance, inveighing against animal, child, and alcohol abuse and alluding to the horrors of war. For all his radical invention, and the contumely heaped upon "minds as rigid as rock," the social order is preserved: Characters are barely introduced before Wright has them tie the knotno less than eight couples wed in the course of the novel, thanks to rascally "Dan Cupid."
Thirty years on, French writer Georges Perec would publish a similarly 250-plus-page absent-E ballad, La disparition (Englished, with the same restriction, by Gilbert Adair as A Void, 1994). Perec was a literary magician, a key member of the Oulipo, famous for its embrace of compositional constraints. La disparitionnods respectfully to its Anglo-Saxon predecessor: a "grand anglais savant," an Oxford instructor of the novel's missing protagonist (A. Vowl) is named Lord Gadsby V. Wright, and one of Vowl's English compositions is in fact an uncredited extract from Gadsby. That the passage is the same one quoted in Oulipian Raymond Queneau's 1964 essay "Potential Literature," wherein Queneau admits he hasn't been able to acquire a copy of Gadsby, suggests that Perec may have only known of this rare book by reputation. Queneau himself lifted his exemplary dab of Gadsby from John Pierce's An Introduction to Information Theory: Symbols, Signals and Noise (1961); Pierce, in turn, credits cryptanalyst William F. Friedman with digging up the prose. Thus, ironically, this swatch of text has been passed down like the received wisdom (the "worn out notion that 'a child don't know anything' ") which Wright professes intolerable.