By Christian Viveros-Fauné
By Miriam Felton-Dansky
By Tom Sellar
By Tom Sellar
By Jessica Dawson
By Tom Sellar
By R. C. Baker
By Tom Sellar
A common thread runs through this theater, and that's performance: a focus on the joy and power of presence, the act of performing and witnessing that act. It's made for intimate audiences. It's a theater of surprises and pleasures. It's Performance Theater.
This theater has its rootsacknowledged or not, explicit or notin performance art. Remember performance art? That '70s thing? It's still around. It just looks a lot like theater. Some call it experimental theater, fringe theater, physical theater, Off-Off-Broadway, or alternative. Performance theater is one of a long line of titles that try to define what's happening on small stages across the U.S.
At my venue, Performance Space 122, we have followed this line of work through many iterations. We cut our teeth as a space for new dance exploration inspired by contact improvisation and the Judson school. Later we became associated with solo performance under the influence of artists like Spalding Gray, Eric Bogosian, and Karen Finley. The artists we are presently working with are attracted to more theatrical forms; some of them are even writing plays.
Perhaps what we're seeing now is a reaction to solo performance, a rediscovery of plays. Some of this new work is coming from a proliferation of Fringe festivals, which have popped up all over North America. Some of it comes from the young poets who define hip-hop theater. The community-based explorations happening across the country, often sponsored by the National Performance Network, are also feeding this movement. The focus is local; it's on the work less than on where the work might go or where the big payoff is. This is anti-consumerist theater; you have to catch it fresh and homemade.
Richard Maxwell and Elevator Repair Service are two artists I feel typify the best of performance theater in the U.S. Both reduce the theatrical experience to its basics. They celebrate the joy of performing and witnessing performance. Their work shares an odd humor, a love of awkward moments, and an embrace of sheer presence. In Maxwell's House, for example, he confines his actors to stiff frontal blocking, which creates a heightened awareness of space and movementthe audience becomes acutely aware of the phenomenon of performance. In ERS's Cab Legs, the actors break a cardinal rule of traditional theater by speaking a majority of the show in barely audible voices, forcing the audience to follow the storya paraphrased Summer and Smokethrough movement and visual clues.
Maxwell's and ERS's pieces are very contemporary takes on what Grotowski, Brook, and Barba were investigating 30 years ago. However, being modern media kids, they approach theatrical moments with an off-the-cuff informality that's very different from the formal reverence many of the '60 experiments held dear. Actually, Grotowski's work always had a biting edge of Eastern European sarcasm that never came across in the writings about the work, that could only be experienced. This ironic edge gave the work a great complexity and deptha trickster theater that implicated the audience.
ERS and Richard Maxwell are also tricksters. Their humor often undercuts an audience just as they are laughing, bringing them to the quick realization that they're in a room watching, participating in a theatrical ritual. A little V-effect.
This fascination with the presence of the performer and the act of acting pervades much of the work I see in the U.S. Circus arts, vaudeville, puppetry, magic, spoken wordthey're feats that must be experienced directly, not mediated. With Americans spending more and more time in front of screens, there's a hunger for low-tech surprise. Make it real.
Performance theater makes it real. Fantasy has been co-opted by film. These artists are looking for the truth in the bald artificiality of theatertruth that they cannot get elsewhere. It's not theater recognizably political or that overtly campaigns for social changefilm and TV do that more efficiently. It's theater that embraces the temporary community of an audiencea deeper, more subtle politics.
I see others around the world investigating this same territory. Two examples: Forced Entertainment in the U.K. and Theater Group STAN in Belgium. These artists also reduce the theatrical to its simplest elements, then mine those riches.
Forced Entertainment, from Sheffield, England, is led by Tim Etchells. They've created a theatrical language that focuses on the responsibility of the performer and his or her actions. Etchells's probing, question-driven texts push his actors to be always fully present. He has taken the confessional mode of Spalding Gray and made it an ensemble activity. These are real tasks, executed in front of an audience. In Quizoola, for example, an actor in melting clownface is interrogated about intimate details of his actual life as well as banal facts, like "What's the capital of Denmark?" The actors walk a tight wire of truth and performance, and we watch them and hold our breath. Etchells acknowledges his influence by the Wooster Group, but he has made their lessons his own. The gravity and intensity that pervade his work are extraordinary. When the questions are posed, the audience cannot help but think of their own responses and put themselves in the actor's shoes.