By Gili Malinsky
By Bob Ruggiero
By Hilary Hughes
By Peter Gerstenzang
By David R. Adler
By Devon Maloney
By Brian McManus
By Jessica Hopper
Arthur Blythe's story may not make a movie, but it certainly works as jazz allegory. He came to New York from San Diego in the magical mid '70s, and on his second night out sat in with Elvin Jones. Although he was critically neglected at home, at 34 he was hardly inexperiencedhaving studied with, among others, the 1940s Lunceford saxophonist Kirtland Bradford and bandleader Horace Tapscott, in whose groups he had played for a decadeand he came East complete with the attention-grabbing sobriquet Black Arthur Blythe. But far more impressive was his wholly original approach to timbre. He made the saxophone sound like no one elseround as Benny Carter, ardent as John Coltrane. Along with Julius Hemphill and Oliver Lake, he put the alto back into contention. His hard- riffing, economical phrases were girded by a fast, edgy vibrato that at its best cut like a Ginsu and at its not-best vibrated with a whining nasality that suggested Al Jolson. The phrases, too, were original, punchy with a fastidious lyricism. When in 1975 he performed at a loft concert with the no less distinctive 20-year-old David Murray, it seemed as though Western winds were, at last, blasting jazz out of its long night in the doldrums.
Relocating his family to New York and supporting himself at times as a security guard, Blythe quickly emerged as a key mover of the loft era, when living-room performance spaces, art galleries, converted warehouses, and other venues welcomed a fresh, nervy new jazz. Neither avant-garde nor mainstream, it embodied a pragmatic rapprochement between the twoone that spurned meretricious fusion while pursuing the merger potential of harmolodic rock. Blythe typified the moment: He concurrently led bands with unconventional instrumentation (Bob Stewart's tuba, Abdul Wadud's cello), standard rhythm sections (a John Hicks piano trio), and electricity (James Blood Ulmer's guitar). His presentations were far from typical. A meticulous man, he started his 8 p.m. sets at 8 p.m., and they were impeccably orderedthe selections succinct and pointed, the solos logically coherent, emotional but never self-indulgent. During the next few years, he joined Chico Hamilton's band, worked often with Gil Evans, recorded with Lester Bowie, and cut his own LPs on the new indies, India Navigation and Adelphi.
By 1978, Columbia Records, which a few years before had jettisoned its jazz roster, began paying attention. Bruce Lundvall was at the helm, and Dexter Gordon's "homecoming" proved a huge success. Blythe was signed as a token representative of the new generation. Lenox Avenue Breakdown, a triumphant disc with dance rhythms and radiant colors, has grown in stature. Yet back then, an over-the-top press campaign that compared Blythe with Charlie Parker guaranteed instant backlash. Tell the world you've signed a brilliant new saxophonist, and the world will say, "Good, let's hear him." Tell the world you've signed the Messiah, and it sharpens its knives. No one doubted that he could play, but for some the ripe, quavering tone was too much. Meanwhile, Blythe's follow-up albums revealed increasing scope: jazz standards on In the Tradition, poignant originals and aggressively edgy funk on Illusions (Stewart, Wadud, and Ulmer in one band), the gamut from free improv to basic gospel on Blythe Spirit, the perfection of a novel septet on Elaborations, the homage to Monk on Light Blue. They sold the way jazz records sell, and the diversity probably didn't help; everyone likes one track on Blythe Spirit, few like them all.
So, in 1984, the Lundvall regime gone, Columbia prevailed on Blythe to do a couple of frankly commercial albumswhich failed to generate a new audience but succeeded in disillusioning the old onebefore showing Charlie Parker's heir the door. (According to his discography, a final and more characteristic Columbia album, Basic Blythe, with strings, came out in 1988, but I've never seen it and was unaware until now of its existence.) During the next few years, his visibility sharply decreased, despite appearances with the World Saxophone Quartet, the Leaders, and an underemployed quintet he co-led with Chico Freeman. Returning to San Diego, he did not issue an album of his own until the attractive if sorrowful 1991 Hipmotism (Enja), which extended his collaboration with Stewart, guitarist Kelvin Bell, and vibist Gust William Tsilis, a collaboration that began on Tsilis's 1987 Pale Fire.
Though uneven, the sporadic Blythe albums issued since 1993 suggest a maturing in tone, style, and rhythm, especially evident in new versions of signature pieces. His blistering yet tempered duet with bassist Wilber Morris on "Jitterbug Waltz" (Live at the Bim, 1996, a round-robin trio collaboration with pianist John Fischer) obliterates the 1979 Columbia reading; his retarding and doubling of the beat brims with a masterly, almost offhand confidence. His slightly drier sound and easy wit are evident in a 1997 duet album with cellist David Eyges, Today's Blues (CIMP)the serene coherence of the unaccompanied "My Sun Ra," the easy swing of "Warne Waltz." If the live recordings, Retroflection (piano quartet, Enja) and the superior Spirits in the Field (tuba trio, Savant), fail to capture the concentration of his best playing, they do have moments of the boisterous resolve that also breaks through the overdetermined lyricism and awkwardness (an oddball "Blood Count") of the calypso-influenced Night Song (Clarity). None of those albums makes a concerted statement.